WARS,BATTLES AND CONFLICTS IN SRI LANKA SINCE 2500 BC

  • THE 1200 BATTLES FOUGHT IN SRI LANKA .

as recorded in Mahavansa

The battles fought in Sri Lanka recorded in the Mahawansa is shown below. Most of the Kings and the Senapatis or Commander who led the battle and the name of the enemy commander , the place of battle and many other details are available for the Military Historians to fill in the gaps.The far the largest number of battle fought was by King Parakramabahu I whose armies fought over 225 battles. This is far from complete and needs constant revision with new data.

The Mahawansa states that there was an armed conflicts even before the arrival of the King Vijaya. These were settled during the visit of Buddha as recorded in the Visit of Buddha in  Mahavansa.

      Buddha visit – Two peace treaties were established

First battle at Mahiyangana Between the Rakshas Vs Yakshas. at

1.Mahiyangana

Second battle between Mahodara Vs Chuloadana.

2.Nagadipa

WARS AND BATTLES=WILHELM GEIGER

{Up to the reign of King Mahasena}

Major Battles are indicated with bullets and wars are indicated with italics

VIJAYA I
543 BC – 505 BC

Invasion of Lanka. The V

War with uncles

SENA and GUTTIKA
237 BC – 215 BC

Invade Lanka

ASELA
215 BC – 205 BC

Defeats Tamils

ELARA
205 BC – 161 BC

Invades Lanka

DUTTHA GAMANI
161 BC – 137 BC

War with Tissa

War with the Tamils

VATTA GAMANI
104 BC – 103 BC and 88 BC – 76 BC

War with Tamils

KUTAKANNA TISSA
42 BC – 20 BC

War with Anula

ILANGA
38 AD – 44 AD

War with the Lambakannas

VASABHA
66 AD – 110 AD

War with Subha

SIRINAGA I
196 AD – 215 AD

War with Kuncha Naga

ABHAYANAGA
237 AD – 245 AD

War with Voharaka Tissa

GOTHAKABHAYA
254 AD – 267 AD

War with Sirisanghabodhi

MAHASENA
267 AD – 277 AD

War with Meghavannabhaya

WARS BATTLES AND REVOLTS

MAHAVANSA PART II

552 AD

King Kassapa , Prince Moggallana comes from Jambudipa ; defeated in battle dies by his own hand. Chap. 39 (Verse20-28).

527 AD

King Siva  slain by King UpaTissa Chap. 40

529 AD

Revolt of Silakala; King Kassapa II losing the battle commits suicide. (10-25)

542 AD

King Datapabhuti I Commits suicide on field of Battlein the war with King  Moggallana II

561 AD

King Mahanaga [Senevi Mana]( Verse 69-90). Mahanaga slays the king Kittisiri megavanna and seizes the throne (91-3).

464 AD

King Lamani-Singana  slain by King Aggibodi I Chap.44

505 AD

  King Samghatissa II becomes king. Moggallana III who was the Senapati of Aggabodhi  I revolts against him and gains the upper hand through the treachery of Sanghatissa’s  General (1-21).

King Mogallana III. As king has a young son of Samghatissa’s  mutilated (22-7). Another son  Jetthatissa escapes to Malaya. Samghatissa himself with a third son and his minister are caught during flight and beheaded (28-43).

The King quarrels with the treacherous General and has him mutilated.

611 AD

 The general son joins  Jetthatissa, defeats Moggallana and while Jetthatissa remains in Malaya, ascends the throne under the name of King Silameghavanna[611-619 AD] (Verse 53-64) . Sirinaga an uncle of Jethatissa comes with a Damila army but is defeated(70-3) King Silameghavanna[611-619 AD] He dies after an illness and succeeded by Jettahissa III

619 AD

 Succeeded by his son Aggabodhi III who is ousted by Jettatissa III.

King Jettatissa III commit suicide in battle with Aggabodhi III

King  Sirisamghabodhi.  Revolt by Jetthatissa III. Aggabodhi flees to Jambudipa(83-94). Reign of Jetthatissa III. Chap.45). (95-102).

King Aggabodhi comes from Jambudip a, Jettthatissa is defeated and takes his life (103-12)

King DathopatissaAt war for 4 years with Aggabodhi III

Dathopatissa revolts and  drives out the king (125-9).

The wars of the two kings damage- the country; violent actions of Dathopatissa and  Kassapa; death of Aggabodhi III (130-44)

King Kassapa II  becomes King after defeating Dathopatissa and makes good  his former misdeeds (145-51).

Last attempt  of Dathopatissa  regain the throne and his death (152-5).

Revolt of the Damilas. While Mana  raises his father Dappula I to the throne,

Hatthadatha’s a nephew of Dalhopatissa I  comes from Jambudipa and seize, the sovereignty (11-21) – He reigns as Dathopatissa II.

668-703AD

King Manavamma[]. He goes to Jambudipa  enters the service of King Narasiha  and becomes his friend (1-14) He supports him in his war with Vallabha Chap 47 (15-27)

Out of gratitude King Narasiha gives him an army with which to gain the sovereignty in Ceylon. The army however leaves him in the lurch and he has again to seek refuge in Jambudipa (28-41).

He returns with a freshly equipped army to Ceylon and gains the Victory.

King Hatthadatha is slain by the populace  Potthakuttha kills himself (42-61) Manavamma as king.(62-66)

Silemegha, he  quarrels with cousin of the same name; war and reconciliation of the two(39-54)

A conflict with a Aggabodhi V?? Chap 48 (55-63).

767-787 AD

King Mahinda ll [] reigns at  first in the name of the widowed queen(76-89).—He twice defeats Dappula ,the sister’s son of his father (90-112)

880-891 AD

The Uparaja, probably Udaya I. becomes king; he crushes a rebellion; weds his daughter Deva to a prince Mahinda of Rohana Chap. 49 (verse1-13).

787-792 AD

King Dappula II. Supports Kittaggabodhi in gaining possession of Rohana (65-73).

Meritorious works of the king and of the Senepati Vajira [74-82).

King Mahinda, son of Mahinda III who would have been the rightful successor flees to Jambudipa(83-6). –

826-846 AD

King S e n a I. Revolt of Udaya and reconciliation Chap. 50 (Verse 8-11).

Incursion of the Paudu king. Is successful in battle. Sena flees to Malaya., The Yuvaraja Mahinda kills himself, his brother Kassapa wins through. The capital is occupied and plundered by the Damilas (12-37). After making a treaty with Sena, the Pandu king retires with great booty. Sena returns to the capital and settles the succession (38-49).

Dynastic strife in Rohana,

King Sena II, Conceives the plan  of a war of retaliation against the Damilas Chap.51 (22-6 ) Supporting a Pandu prince in his claims to the throne, he sends his Senapati with an army to the Continent.

King Kittaggabodhi revolts and seizes Rohana. The king sends great nephew against him. Conquest of Rohana (94-125). – Punishment of the rebels; (126-36).

891-908 AD

King Kassapa IV. Revolt of Prince Mahinda in Rohana and reconciliation with him Chap. 52 (verse4-9).

Kassapa supports the Pandu king in war against the Cola king; his army obliged to return in consequence of a pestilence (70-82).{supported by Inscription of Paranataka I [918-919]}

918-930AD

King Dappula V. – Dappula V harbours the Pandu king who flees to him; meritorious work of the king and of his Senapati Chap. 53 (verse 4-12).

King Udaya III. Invasion of the Colas, flight of the king to Rohana.

Retreat of the Colas after an unsuccessful attack Rohana (39-45).

The Senapati of the king, Viduragga undertakes a campaign in the Cola country (46-7)-

954-970 AD

King Mahinda IV[]. His war with the Cola Prince Vallabha ended by a treaty Chap. 54 (Verse 7-16)

King Sena V [ 971-981AD] Conflict with the  Senapati Sena because the king makes Udaya Senapati instead of him (57-6l).  Sena dies through drink.

981-1017 AD

King Mahinda V. Leaves capital Pollonaruva and Anuradhapura and forced to Ruhuna.

Invasion of Rajaraja. Later taken captive and Rajendra Cola and taken to India.

A General Kitti[ 1041AD] reigns in Ruhuna for 8 days and slain by Mahalana Kitti[1041-1044].

Who in turn slain by Vikkama-pandu[1044-1045 AD] who was slain by the Colas.

THE BATTLES COMPLIED BY JOHN STILL, an elaboration of these battles is  given below

Battles 3

Battles 4

Battles 5

Parakkama Bahu l[1153-1186 AD].
War with Kittisirimegha;Ch 65

Parakkama proceeds farther to Buddhagama (Ch 65 v 1-19).Subdues the resistance of the inhabitants (v 20-34). The commander of Kalavapi, Gokappa, visits the prince. Frightened however, by dream he flees by night to Kalavapi. His people follow him (v35-56). Kittisirimegha determines to fetch the Prince back by force but Parakkama ambushes the troops sent to seize him and cuts them up (v 57-77). – There follows a series of further skirmishes until the Prince at Janapada reaches the territory of Gajabahu (78-111). – Gajabahu receives him with honour. Parakkama now seeks by systematic espionage to discover the temper of the king’s subject and does the same in the society in which he moves
The battles at, Buddhagama ch.66, v. 26;
Saraggama, ch. 66 v. 7I ; Khiravapi, ch. 66 , v. 85 ; Navagiri,ch. 66, v. 93 ;
War in the Malaya Country, ch. 70, v. I;
The battles fought at Dumbara, ch. 70, v. 8 ; Yatthikanda. ch- 70, v9 ; Talakkhetta,Nagapabbata, ch.70, v. 10 ; Suvannadoni ,Ramucchuvallika, Demalatthapadatthali, ch. 70, v. 11 ; Nilagallaka, ch 70,v 14 ;Sayakhettaka, Rattabeduma, Dhanuvillika. ch. 70, v I6; Vapivataka,Majjhima-Vagga ch 70 v 21 : Rerupallika ch 70 v 25,-Sisacchinnaka ch.70,v 29, ;

War with Gajabahu ch 70, v 53,

Mallavaliya, ch. 70, v. 61 ;Naval battle on off pearl banks , ch. 70, v 64; MaIavalliya , Katiyagama , ch. 70, v. 67 ; Gonagamuka, ch. 70, v 71; Pilavitthi Sallaka, Tata-vapi, Jambukola, Vajiravapi: Nandivapi Pallika-vapi , and Kalalahalika, ch. 70, v. 72; Nilagala, ch 70; v 83 ;Janapada, ch. 70, v 87, Bodhigama, ch,. 70, v 88 ; Bubbula ,ch. 70, v.99; Janapada, ch.70, v 103; Yagalla, ch 70, v. 106 ; Seige of Aligama, ch. 70, v. 112 ; battles,Senagama, ch.720,v. 133 ; Manyagama , ch 70, v 134; Mita Sukaragama, ch 70 ,v 135 ; Terigarna, ch 70, v 138 ;. Badaribhatikamana ,’ch.70, v 148 ; Siyamahanta-kuddala, Tissavapi, Anuradhapura , ch 70, v . 150 ; Siyamahanta-kuddala, ch. 70, v. I54; Anuradhapura, ch. 70, v. 156 ; Nandamulaka ,ch. 70. v. 164; Kuaddra kirati, ch 70, v 165; Vilana ch 70, v 166 ; Mattikavapi, Uadhakura, Adhokura, ch. 70, 171; Nassinna, Alisaraka, ch. 70, v. 172; Rajakamata-Sambadha, Milana-khetta, ch. 70,V 176; Dara-ega, ch 70,v177 ; Mangalaba, ch.70, v. 178; Lakulla ch. 70, v. 214; Hattanna , ch 70, v. 215; Khandigama,. ch.70 v. 218 ; Sivaviyala, ch. 70, v. 232; Siege of Pulatthl , ch. 70, v. 235;

War with Manabharana, ch. 70,v. 257;
battles, Pulatthi, ch 70, v 293; Vacavataka,ch. 70, v. 295; Nala, ch. 70, v.296; Mattnna, ch. 70. v 298; Pulatthi, ch. 70, v. 308;
Second War with Gaja Bahu;
The battles at Tannaru, ch. 70, v. 317;Valuka-patta, ch 70, v 319 ; Kohomba ,ch. 70, v. 320; Ambagama,ch-70, v 321; Tanitittha , Antaravitthi , ch. 70,v 322; kalapilla, ch 70, v 325;

Second War with Manabharana,. Ch 71, v 9;

Parakramabahu waged a long and bitter protracted war against Manabarana of Rohana. Most battles were fought along the Mahaveli River, many fords are mentioned where battle took place. Parakramabahu did not exploit his success by pursuing him. The Tooth and Bowl relics were in the possession of Manabarana, and on the death of Manabarana they passed on to his mother Queen Sugula. Manabarana commanded his Princes not to oppose Parakramabahu but submit to him.

The battles, Sarogamna,, 72,v 34; Talanigama, ch . 72, v. 37 ; Puna. ch . 72, v. 39 ; Samirukkha,ch. 72, v.42 ; Maharukkha. ch.7i2 , v 44 ; Nalikeravatthu,ch. 72, v. 46; Anantara-bhandaka, ch. 72, v. 49; Kanatalavana , ch. 72, v. 52; Yakkha-sukara, ch. 72, v. 54; Vihara-vejjasala, ch. 72, v. 58; Assamandala, ch.72, v. 59; Sakkunda,ch. 72, v. 61 ; Sarogama, ch. 72, v. 63; Sami, ch, 72, v. 66;Culla-nage, ch.72,v.67 ; Burudatthali, ch.12, v. 68; Niggundi-valuka, ch. 72, v. 69; Bhillapattaka Khanda, eh. 72, v, 73;Titthagama, ch. 72, v. 75; Nandigama, ch. 72, v. 76; Hedilla khanda, ch. 72, v. 77 ; Bhillagama, ch. 72, v. 8l; Golabaha,ch. 72, v. 85; Dipala, ch.12, v.86; Navayojana, ch. 72, v.92;Kalagiri, ch. 72, v. 95; Dighalika-Mahakhetta, ch. 72, v. 96;
Rebellion of Narayana, ch. 72, v. 98;
Battles, Vallitittha, ch.72, v. 114; Badaravalli, ch. 72, v. 130; Billa, ch. 72, v. 155;Nandamula, ch. 72,v.166; Janapada, ch. 72,v.200; Kalavapi,ch. 72, v. 204; Uddhavapi, ch.72, v.207; Katuvandu, ch.72,v. 222; Kalavapi, ch. 72, v. 228; Moravapi, ch. 72, v, 231 ;Mihirana-bibbila, ch. 72, v. 265; Rajata-kedara, ch. 72, v.290;

Campaign in Rohana,, ch.74, v.22; Against Queen Sugula
Fighting the way after Capture of Relics.

Lower Uva. March from Polonnaru to Bibile.
The first hostile place reached by Parakramabahu’s troops was Barabbala which is in the vicinity of Mahiyangana. Further along the route actions fought at Kantakavana, Ambala and Sava( Codrington suggest Havanavava 5 miles East- North East of Pangaragammana a) and Divacadantabatava, where the advance was brought to a halt by powerful resistance. The last named place was a forested valley, 2 to 4 miles long , hemmed in on both sides by hills, defended by a succession of strong points; Codrington suggests the neighborhood of Hapola, 7 miles west-north west of Bibile, where topography fits the description in the chronicle. After been reinforced by troops broke through the fortifications and continued their advance through Kimsukvattuka, Vatarakkhatthali, Dathvaddhana and Sohodara which Codrigton places near Bibile.
Geiger identifies Lakagalla , also Loka, as a locality in the valley of the Loggal Oya which flows from Passara to Mahaveli Ganga. In its neighborhood was Sakhapatta or Sapatagama which Codington locates as modern Hapatagamuva, 8 miles North West of Badulla, on a Uma Oya. Both Lokgalla and sakhapatta were in Dhanumandala district , which Geiger identifies as approximately the present Viyaluva Korale in Viyaluva Division. The route taken by P’s troops , who were fighting their way through with captured Tooth and Bowl Relics from Khiragama(modern Yudaganava) to Dhanumandala was 1. Tanagaluka, for which Codrigton proposes Yakura 2. Sukhagirigama, as Gurhela 3.Katadoravada( not same as kantakadvarata);4. Ambagalla and 5. Tandulapatta or Tanduleyya, which may be Kurivelotakanda near Madulsima. Bokusala was probably near Tandulpatta
Parakramabahu was consecrated as King of Rajarattha as successor to Gajabahu at Polonnaru with the relics. At the beginning of his reign he proceeded to subjugate Rohana and to obtain the relics, but the people of Rohana resisted him and was behind Queen Sugula. He first commanded troop under Lankadhikaran Kitti entered Digavapi district from Erhulu ( Eravur, 8 miles North of Batticaloa), and captured a fortified position at Givulabe[ possibly Divulana] and advanced in to Udhagama[Uhana] where they entrenched themselves and stayed for three months, making forays on pockets of resistance in the vicinity. The next objective was Hihobu, well fortified place ,protected by trenches and thorn fences.; this was captured, as well as a another strong point at Kiridagama, and then the invading forces occupied and encamped at Dighavapi [ Veraiadi]. These forces were then diverted to Monaragala to reinforce another column that was diverging on Etimole .Monaragala Area where Queen Sugula had taken up positions with the Relics. The relics were captured but Queen Sugula escaped. Parakramabahu forces were then attacked from the flanks and the rear , by the soldiers of Rohana, who had now assembled in larges and threatening strengths in Buttala district, they conducted both Open and Underground activities. The three Generals of Parakramabahu summed up the threat mentioned in the following words
“ Our Foes know their own country, when we come near them they disperse on every side, penetrate again into territory that we brought into our power, In order to conquer it, and vex the people”,
they decided, therefore in the future, they would post a strong garrison with capable officers in every area which they subdued to hold and consolidate their gains and prevent the enemy form re-entering or reoccupying it.
Serious rebellion was reported to have broken out again in the Digavapi district it was agreed in the first instance, a concerted attack should be launched upon this region,to bring out complete submission before the scope of military operations was further extended. Accordingly the Lankadikarin Kitti, Bhuta and Manju starting form Valivassaragama, a meeting place of many roads outside and to weastward of the Digapavapi district, marched Eastwards and after fighting ar Savanavinyala, a strong hold with twelve gates, they turned Northwards up the coast, captured Gomyagama and Chag-gama( Sakaman) and arrived at Balapasana(between Sakamam and Malvatta).Here they made a formidable fortification and garrisoned it with a strong deattachment under a command of Lankapura Kitti. The main body now broke up into columns, all marching in a Westerly direction ( the reverse direction to that in which they have entered the digavapi district), and proceeded to subdue the Digavapi district to an end. The different columns fought a number of successful actions at various places, particularly Malavattuka( Malvattai), Mulltutta, Senaguttagama( Senegamuva, between Lahugala and Pottuvil), Bologama, Varagama and Galambatthikagama; having completed the subjugation of Digavapi District, all columns from the different sectors continued their Westerly advance and converged on Hintalavanagama( 40 o 50 miles Westwards of Digavapi).Hintalavanagama was stormed, the defender, resorting to their usual tactics created once again a diversion in the rear of Parakramabahu’s forces by attempting to retake Digavapi; the garision left behind at Balapasana reinforced by a column from main body made a forced march to it aid, foiled this attempt foil attempt to renew the conflict. After this no further fighting took place in Digavapi district, but resistance continued in Lower Uva, Hambantota and Matara Districts and ended only with the capture of Queen Sugula. Pace was disturbed only six year later by another great uprising in Rohana , but no details are given in the Chronicles., but this too was subdued by Military action, there after Rohona submitted to Parakramabahu’s rule.
Battles at , Barabbala, ch. 74,v.54; Kantakavana, ch. 71, v. 56; Ambala, ch.74, v,59; Savan,ch. 74, v. 60; Kinsuka-vatthu, ch. 74, v. 76; Vatarakkhatthali,ch. 74, v. 77 ; Dathavaddhana Sahodara,, ch. 74, v. 78; Lokagalla, ch. 74, v. 79 ; Kantaka-dvara-vataka, ch, 74, v. 85 ;Uddhana-dvara,, ch. 74, v. 86; Givulaba, ch. 74, v. 91; Uddhagamaka, ch. 74, v. 93; Hibobu, ch. 74, v. 95; Kirinda, ch. 74,v. 97; Uddhana-dvara, ch. 74, v. 113; Maharivara, ch. 74, v.122; Sumanagalla, ch. 74, v. 124; Uruvela mandala, ch. 74,v. 126; Sapatgama, ch. 74, v. 132; Bhattasupa, ch. 74, v. 136;Demataval, ch. 74, v 139; Khiragama, ch. 74, v. 164; Tanagaluka, Sukhagiri, Katadorava, Dambagallaka, Tandula-pattha,ch. 74, v. 165; Sakhapatta lokagalla Ch 74 v 168; Valivasara Ch 74,178 Syavana-viyala, ch. 75, v, 2 ; Vattagamakaasana, Mulutta, sebagutta, Bolagama, Vanaragama, Gullambatti Ch 75,vv 6-8; Hintalagama Ch 75, v 9; guttasala mandala ch 75 ,v 15; Corambagama , Mulanagama, Kuddalamandala ch 75, v 16; Ulada, Valukasa, and Hiyailagama, ch. 75, v ; Galu river, ch 75 ,v. 35;

Battles in Matara District

Parakramabahu troops advanced from pasdun Korale down the coast to attack the rebels in Ruhuna and reached Mahavaluka-gama or modern Valigama, the place was a sea port of some importance with many merchants, to whome Money and life was dear. Parakramabahu offered pardon to those who came over to his side and protection, Valigama was captured without much fighting.
From Valigama troops broke up into many columns which fought actions at Kammaragama(Kamburugamuva), Mahapanalagama(Palana), Manakapittha, Nilavaltithha( Matara) and Devanagara( Devundara) and converged on Kadalipatara in order to cross Nilwala ganga in firce. The rebel took their stand at Mahakhetta( Paraduva near Akuressa), to oppose the crossing, but P’s forces broke through and crossed over to opposite bank at Dighali [Paraduva ],where there is an extensive stretch of paddy fields on one side of the river and a long Canal on the other[ Dik-ela].
Conjointly with the attack down the coast as mentioned above] Parakramabahu sent a strong force from Devawaka and Navadan Korales to advance into Moraval Korale and descend the hills into Girava Pattu. These forces captured rebel stronghold at Madhutthala, present Migoda near and South –east of Urabokke, and at Sukarali- Bheripasana, present Urabokka and Beralapanatara.( an Area with strong Military Traditions]

Mahavalukagama[ Modern Valigama],- ch. 75, v 38; Devanagara-Kammaragama, Mahapanalagama, Manakapitthi, Nilavala river,Kadalipattagama, ch.75, v 50; Mahakhetta, ch. 75, v. 52;Dighali, ch.75, v. 62; Suvannamalaya, ch.75, v. 63; Pugadantakavata, ch. 75, v. 87 ; Tambagama, ch.75, v 92 ;Bodhivata, Hintalavana, Antaranda , Mahabodhikkhanda, ch 75, v 98 ; Mahasenagama, ch. 75, v.11 1 ;
Capture of Mahanagakula City[ Valigama] ,ch.75,v. 117 ;
The battles at , Bakagalla, ch . 75, v 127; Sanghabheda, ch. 75, v.130 ; Mahanagakula, ch.75, v. 138 ; Kuravakagalla, ch.75, v. 139 ; Mahagama, ch. 75, v. 141 ; Pugadandavata, ch. 75 , v. 149 ; Bodhiavata, sukaralibheripassna, Madhutthali, ch. 75, v. 150; Malavaratthali, ch. 75, v 160, Vanagama, ch. 75, v. I78 ; Uddhana-dvara, ch 75, v I86 ;

Second War in Ruhuna ch.76, v 1;

Battle of Mahatitta Ch 76 ,v 8

Invasion of Burma

Invasion of Ramanna Ch 76 v 36
Battle of Kakadipa ch 76 v 57
Kusumani Ch 76 v 60
Papala Ch 76 v 64

Invasion of South India Ch 76 v 76

Dis-embarkment at Talabbila Ch 76 v 88
Battles fought
Capture of Ramissaram, ch. 76, v. 97; battles, Kundukala, ch. 76, v L23; Carukkata, ch. 76, v. 129; Koluvuru, Maruthupa, ch. 76, v 123 ;Kunappunalur, ch. 76, v. 133; Vadali, ch. 76, v. 136; Tirinaveli,ch.76 v I45; Parakkama pura,, ch. 76, v. 154; Kurumbandankali, ch. 76 v. 160; Erikkavur, ch. 76, v. 169; Deviyepattanam, ch. 76, v. 172; Dantika, ch. 76, v. 175; Kundayan-neka ch. 76, v. 180 ; Maruthukkota, ch. 76, v. 183 ; Paniva, ch 76 v 187 ; Anivalakkota, ch. 76, v. 190; Nettur, ch 76, v 192;Mundikkara Ch 76 v 211, Nettur ch 76 v 216; ALaturunadal, ch. 76, v. 222, Patapata, ch. 76, v..227, Tondi, Pasa,ch. 76, v.239, Senponmari, ch. 76, v. 246, Mundikkara, ch. 76,v 271, Siriyavala, ch. 76, v. 277, Mangala, ch. 76, v. 30l, Orittiyuru-tondama, ch. 76, v. 308; Madhuram-Manavira, Patta-Nallur, Sorandakkota, ch. 76, v.309 ; Tiruppalur, ch. 76,v 314; , Pannattakkotta, ch. 76, v. 318, Rajina, ch. 76, v. 322; Pon Amaravati, ch. 77, v. 21, Mangala, ch. 77, v. 35, Vellinaba,ch. 77, v. 39, Sivaliputtar, ch. 77, v. 41, Santaneri, ch. 77,v. 44, Palankota, ch. 77, v. 64, Kile-nilaya, ch. 77, v. 84, Pon Amaravati, ch. 77, v. 94.

Parakkama, Pandu.[1210-1213]
Invades Lanka, ch. 80, v. 52.

 

Magha[1213-1234 AD].
Invades Lanka, ch. 80, v. JO ; sack of lrulatchi, ch. 80, v. 71.

Vijaya Bahu III [1220-1224 AD].
War with Tamils, ch. 81, v. 10.

Parakkama Bahu ll [ 1225-1269 AD]

War with Vanni Princes, ch.83, v.g; war with Tamils, c[. g1, v. ll ;
battle, Kalavapi, ch. 83, v. 3L).

Malay Chandrabanu .Invasion of Lanka, ch. 88
Second invasion, Ch. 88, v. 62 :
battle, Subha Pabbata, ch. 88, v 64.

Pandians.
Invasion of Lanka, ch. 90, v. 43 ; capture oI Subiragiri, ch. 90, v. 4b.

Bhuvanaikabahu VII of Gampola & Alakeswara of Kotte 1347 AD
Arya chakravati of Jaffna with his Army form Cola advances to Matale and by ships to Panadura and Colombo ports. The King Bhuvenaka Bahu of Gampola escapes to Raigama,
Battle of Matale
The Soldiers of 5 rata surround Cola army and a night attacks it at Matale and defeat the Soli Army.

Battle of Dematagoda

The army to Kotte camps at Defence lines from Dematagoda to Gorakane is defeated by and Alakeswara on Elephant and their ships destroyed at both ports.
Invasion by Caresese Army from Western Coast if India repulsed
Parakramabahu VI [ 1410- 1467 AD]

Battle of Yapanapattam[ Jaffna]

First Expedition -Prince Sapumal Kumaraya defeats Arya Chacravati and brings back his Queen and regalia to Kotte King.
When exercising supreme power in this manner, he thought it not that there should be two seats of government in Lanka; and placing the army in charge of Sapumalkumara, he sent him to Yapapatuna. The Prince [Sapumal] attacked several villages belonging thereto, brought prisoners to the city of Kotte, delivered them to the great king Pararakrama Buhu.
Second expedition to Jaffna ; Prince Sapumal was sent out again in command, of the army. On this occasion he caused the forts which had been erected in different places to surrender. when entering the town of Yapapatuna , he rode upon a dark horse. As he entered, the city the Tamil : Dolurrara was lying in wait to stab his horse,[but] the prince Sapumal made his horse curve with grace and spirit, and charging into midst of the enemy created, such carnage that the streets of Yapapatuna were deluged with blood. He slew the king Arya Chakravati, took his consort and children prisoners, brought them to Kotte and presented himself before king Parakramubahu ;who thereupon, conferring on him many favours, delivered to him Yapapatuna and sent, him thither.

Raid on Malabar Coast

A Sinhala Ship is seized by Virama of Malabar Coast. A Naval Raid on Aryapattam to put Virarama to death.After this. the king sent out, a vessel laden with goods to trade, but a Malabar, namecl Virarama of Ayapattumana , seized the vessel and goods . On learning this, king Parakramabahu dispatched hundreds of ships ; caused the said Malabar Virarama to be put to death; several villages and a towns of the Soli country to be pillaged and tribute to be brought annually from four s villages called Makudam Kotta in the Soli country.

King Vira Parakramabahu

A General of King named Pathiraja Ambulagala son of Parakramabahu encamps at Siyane Korale and moves camp to Kelaniya and attacks Kotte and defeats Patiraja.

King Dharma – Parakramabahu
Battle of Madampe

Moor Kadirayana occupies Madampe[ Captures Elephants and Pearl Fisheries etc]. Kings younger brothers Sakalakala Valla and Taiya Valla is dispatched with Army, defeats Kadirayana.

Portuguese.
Invasion of Lanka, ch. 95, v. 4.

Vijeyabahu VII -1520 AD

Rebellion at Hapitigam Korale put own by Mayadunne.

The first siege of Colombo,

Use of Catapults etc, Proyatola Rala attack on Stockade with 2000 Foot, 150 Horses and 25 Elephants.

Bhuvenaikabahu VIII of Kotte 1521-1551 AD

1521  Vijeyabahu Kollaya Bhuvanekabahu crowned
1523 Portuguese dismantles the stockade and take back the Cannons etc.
Salpuri Arachchi captures 2 ships of the Moors
4 captured ships of Moors offered to Bhuvenake bahu by the Portuguese.[ One Galley and 2 Galliots,

1524 AD Mayadunne of Sitawake first siege of Kotte along with Guns from Samorin of Calicut send Mayadunna firearms and soldiers opposing Bhuvenaka Bahu and Portuguese at Kotte and Colombo.

1528 Mayadunna army advance to Kotte with the arrival of Malabar ships, but withdraws with the arrival of Portuguese form Goa.
Arya Mantri leads the Kotte army in its advance to Gampola.

Oct 1536  Pachi Marikar 4000 soldiers arrive commanded by Ali Ibrahim in Colombo and Mayadunne Army from Sitawake besieges Kotte, but with the arrival of Portuguese fleets withdraws.

1537,  Samorin of Calicut send 8000 men and 400 pieces of Artillery , Bhuvanakebahu approaches Portuguese for help and a comet in shape of Bull causes terror and withdraw.

Mayadunna second siege of Kotte 1536 AD

1540 Mayadunne annexed Raigama.

1542-45 AD Agreement between Kandy and Portuguese. An annual tribute , a site for a factory in exchange for some company of Portugurese to be attached for protection against attack from Kotte and Sitavaka

1543 Portuguese under De Souza leads expedition to Jaffna.
Vediya bandara of Kotte Kings son in law advances and defeats Wickremabahu of Gamp[ola.

Rebellion in Uva over a lady, Bombu Rala is sent with troops, marries the lady and established him self there.
1545  Videya bandara advances to Sitawaka along with Portuguese, Mayadunne withdraw into mountains and lays two ambushes and defeats Kotte army and captures Vediya Bandara.Videya bandara escapes to Kotte

1546 AD  Videya bandara advances to Senkadagala avoiding Sitawaka Forces and defeats usurper who ruled there.

Aug Sept 1547AD .Mayadunne and King Sankili [ Chaga Raja] sweeps through the Pitigal, Hapitiya and Siyane Korale of the Kotte kingdom. But Wediya badara with 100 troops of the Portuguese holds them off.1549 AD The Kotte army and 600 Portugeues under Barreto advances to Sitawaka, Mayadunne learning of the streanght of these, withdraws and the Kotte Garrison left by Wediya bandara is massacred at Senkadagala by the kandyans,the Army marches to and ravages the country side and in desperation defends it selve at Ganewatte and the Kotte and Portuguese armies forced to withdraw, during the withdrawal nearly half the Portuguese are killed and rest wounded and arrives Mayadunne Terrotery of Sitawake, They are received by Mayadunne and sent by boat to Colombo.
Barreto to is wounded and on recovery tries to convert Bhuvanakabahu and lectures him in detail about fate oe the arwful terror of non believer of Christ in hell. Bhuvanakebahu short reply was “ Have you being there’’. Barreto is reported to have dashed his hat and walked out and left the country not even taking the presents of THE King for the assistance rendered. 1540 Mayadunne annexed Raigama.

1542-45 AD Agreement between Kandy and Portuguese. An annual tribute , a site for a factory in exchange for Company of Portugurese to be attached for protection against attack from Kotte and Sitavaka

Aug Sept 1547 and March 1550 two punitive expeditions both failed.

1557 Dharmapala becomes a Catholic and decrees Kotte to the King of Portugal.
Mayadunne and Rajasimha attacks Kotte and Colombo 2 Sieges.
March 1550 Punitive expeditions failed
.

1565 Kotte abandoned and Dharmapala move to Colombo

1574 and 1578 Sitavaka attacks kandy but failed subjugates Kandy.
1581

1581-2 AD  Sitavaka army of 30,000 advancing to Kandy, Karalliyada Bandara[1552-1582 AD] gives battle at Balane and Kandy annexed to Sitavaka. No Kingdom until 1591 AD.

Karaliadda daughter Kusumsanadevi is at Mannar with Portuguese and baptized as Dona Catarina.

1590 Don Fransisco Mudali a Chritian of Royal Blood raised the standard of revolt in Udarata. Yamasimha Bandara heir to Karaliadda urges intervention by Portuguese. Yamasimha, Konnappu Bandara along with 400 Portuguese and 200 Lascorins led by De Sampayo Invade Kandyan Territory. Welcomed by Kandayan . Saivism and execution of Virasundara]

1591 Konnappu Bandara is crowned Vimaladhramsuriya I takes power in Kandy.

1594
1597 Death of Dharamapala .
Porutugese grand plans for Kandy as she is the rightful heir and this in addition to Kotte being handed over to King of Portugal by Dharmapala.

BATTLES OF RAJASIMHA I

Battle of Diyawalakanda Pasyadun Korale

Tikiri Rajjuruva Bandra the 13 years old son of Mayadunna. In Battle fought against Veediya Bandara [ who was married to a daughter of King Mayadunna .

Battle of Molkawa-Kula ganga

Timbiripola Bandara[ second Son of Mayadunna], Tikiri Bandara[ youngest son] and Wickremasinghe Mudali combined forces moved to Kaluganga , and joined by 300 Portuguese and attacked Molkawa Fortifications strongly held by Prince Widiya Bandara. Pelen Ganga was crossed, 3 day spent on erecting entrenchments, Weediya Bandara [Regent of Kotte –father of King Daramapala] led his troops out into the open and gave battle, The challenge was accepted and a severe fight ensured, Artillery and Matchlock being used by both sides. With Portuguese assistance Weediya Bandaras troops was pushed back, Attapitiya Ferry.

Battle -Attapitiya Ferry

Weediya Bandara joins up with King Karaliadde of Kandy and rebuilds an army. Descend from the hill country Alpitiya road[ Alpiti Kanda an ancient Kadawata of Ambuluwa in a gap of hill to the West of Gampola. And arrives in Galboda Korale. Sitwaka army under Tikiri Bandara and Wickremasinha Mudali proceeds via Katugaha and occupies Kariyagama. Weediya Bandara despatches a force to seize Attapitiya Ferry but fails and retires to Hill country by same route he came down.

Battle of Elletota

Weediya Bandara is dismissed by Karaliyyade on a threat by Mayadunna or further hostilities. Weediya Bandara goes to 7 Korales and disposes of Edirimanne Surya Raja and becomes the ruler. Portuguese troop reinforces Weediya Bandara Tibiripola Bandara occupies Menikadawara., while Wickremasinghe Mudali pushed on the front . The armies of Weediya Bandara and Wickremasingeh Mudali meet at Elletota, many Portuguese soldiers are killed and the gains by Wickremasinghe Mudali . The Sitawaka musketeers gain advantage and succeed in capturing a Tusked elephants and both forces retire to camps.
Weediya Bandara goes to Jaffna via Puttlam and in Jaffna he is Killed after a desperate battle with Tamils soldiers though out numbered.

Mulleriyawa Battle.

The Portuguese with a large army advances to attack Sitawaka and had come to Maetakanda, they had halted at Hevagama[Panagoda Army Camp is in Hwegam Korale]. Wickremasinghe Mudali advances to give battle in the village of Mulleriyawa. A fierce battle where Wickrnmasighe Mudali is wounded and many of soldiers are killed. Tikiri Bandara now known as Rajasinha rallies his forces and defeats the Portuguese at Mullariyawa. With the help of the Archchies of Atutugiri Korale and Hewagam Korale and Koratota. Targe Bearer trained in fencing schools in sent in by Raja Sinha to cut down the enemy. Raja sinha him self mounted on a horse The Targe bearers ,Elephants and Horse mingled together and prevented the Portuguese for reloading their muskets , many casualties on both sides. An attack from the front and Jayasundara and Vijasundara elephant divisions now joins in and attack from the rear. The Portuguese are routed and all who fought are rewarded by land in Hewagam Korale, Pangoda etc.
The Portuguese plans to attack Rajasinha who is camped at Rakgahawatte , by advancing on either banks of Kelani river and bringing a Cannon Mounted on a castle built on two Padda-boats. Ragasinha is ready for them, he orders a bronze cannon be cast and mounted on the right bank and charged with ball, and as the floating Castle come into view Rajasinha himself aimed and fired the gun and with such good fortune that it raked the towing boat and killed 20 sailors. The Portuguese become desperate and hastily give up and retire, Wickremasingha Mudali in pursuit drive them back on the Siyane Korale side of the river up to Nagalagama.
The Portuguese is policy of destruction and killing raids from Colombo to Negumbo and to the south. Mudiliyar Wickremasinha is sent to subdue the Portuguese and seize their ships etc in small port around Wattala by King Mayadunne.

SEIGE OF COLOMBO- King Rajasinha.

Rajasinha Atempt to capture Colombo. Wickremasinghe Mudali is sent in advance to Weraluvetota and erects a stockade at lower Boralugoda. Senerat Mudali encamped on plains of Botulagoda, the city is besieged, While camping there the Portuguece make surprise attack of Wickremasinha Mudali quarters which was not heavily guarded, using boats to Mutuwal and advancing along the Kelani river. They are detected in time and Wickremasinghe escapes though his sword and a lot of arms and ammunition is lost.
A dispute between Wickremasinghe Mudali and Senerat Mudali . Senerat Mudali open correspondence with King Daramapala who is with the Portuguese , falsely accuses Wickremasingeh Mudali of corresponding with the Portuguese . Rajasinha whose HQ is at Kurakakan watte , close to Weralutota ,calls for Wickremasinghe Mudali and send him back to Sitawaka.
A threat from Hill country and Rajasinsha returns to Sitawaka. Wickremasingeh Mudali has an attack of dysentery , a leech was directed to give him medicine mixed with poison, where by Wickremasinha at an age of about 75 years dies.
Sitawaka Rajasinghe Son

Battle of Orutota[ Gampaha WP],

On the 25th April 1593 he appeared at Orutota. The heavy monsoon rains have commenced and the working of the matchlocks was a matter of difficulty. The Mudaliyars and Ararchchis advised delay ,but De Silva inisisted on making the attack at once and by three in the afternoon the battle began. The Sitawaka armv was drawn up in three lines behind the Kodituwkku [ 900 Gingles employed by Sitawake ]and as the Portuguese approached, the Mohottiar gave the signal by firing two shots . Immediately all the kodituwakku were discharged, with fearful effect; Portuguese commander himself was wounded, the majority of his men were killed. and the rest fled in confusion. The Sltavaka men supported four elephants rushed out from behind their fortifications ,was not long before nearly every one of the Portuguese and De. Silva himself were dad, though the Portuguese commander wounded and as he was, succeeded in escaping to Colombo with a few Lascarins. De Silva’s head was taken in triumph to Sitawaka.

PORTUGUESE POLICY.

Meanwhile, the failure of Azevedo’s invasion in 1602-3 had led the Portuguese to reexamine their strategy. A frontal attack would require the deployment of many times the forces that had been available in 1594 and 1602-3. But in the first decades of the seventeenth century, the Portuguese authorities in Goa and Europe, faced by ever widening circles of commitments, against the Dutch in the Moluccas, against a combination of the Dutch and the ruler of Adeh in Malacca, against the Dutch and English naval blockades in Europe, and beset by a series of financial crises, found themselves unable to spare the resources or the men for such an undertaking.
Since a frontal attack was beyond them, the Portuguese decided on slow strangulation of Kandy. There were three elements in the Portuguese policy. First, Kandy was to be sealed off against commercial and political relations with the outside world by means of armed boats patrolling the eastern coastal waters of the island. Secondly, Portuguese and Indian immigrants were to be settled in the coastal territories, as a solution to the inadequacy of troops for the invasion and occupation of the kingdom. Thirdly, Kandyan lands were to be systematically devastated and rendered uninhabitable. “…With this regimen of war that kingdom is to be bled to death, until it is entirely depopulated and laid waste… ” the architect of this policy explained. the object of this exercise was to bring Kandy on its knees, so that the Portuguese at some future date, would be able, with minimum effort, to bring it under subjection.

SINHALA ROYALTY REMOVED TO GOA AND CONVERTED.
This was the removal abroad of all those who were closely related to the Royal houses, for fear that they would be a disturbing element on the local political scene. Two Sitawake princes, both grandsons of Rajasinha, were thus exiled to Goa and later to Portugal.Konappu bandara as Kusumavati Devi taken to Mannar Several Notarial Deeds were obtained in favour of Portuguese King 1,In 1580 AD a Deed executed by Dharmapala of Kotte 2, 1590-91 when Yamasinhan Bandara and his Son reigned in Kandy under the protection of the Portuguese., they got deed annexing the Kandyan Kingdom to King of Portugal.

REBELLIONS.[ 1594-1631 AD].

Six major rebellions that swept through these territories and four minor outbreaks of resistance. Five of the major rebellions.

1594 AD

were led respectively by Akaragama Appuhamy in,1594-96 AD-Edirille Rala ,

1599 AD

Two of the minor revolts took place in the Hewagam Korale and the leaders were Kuruppu Aracci of koratota and Vellappuli Aracci.[Arachchi]

1603 AD

Kangara Aracci in, Kuruvita Rala in 1603 .

 

1616-19 AD

1616-17 AD. by Nikapitiye Bandara in summer of 1616 AD Minor Revolt in the Seven Korales.

1619 AD

a Minot revolt by the Matara disava led by Ekanayaka Mudaliyar.

1630-31 AD

The sixth major rebellion was directed jointly by four Mudaliyars, Kulatunga Vickramasimha, Amarakoon Manthri, Siyane Korale Bandara and Kattota Manthri.

rebel leaders sometimes had to “import” fugitive Sinhalese princes from abroad or to impersonate them. Kuruvita Rala adopted the first course when he invited the prince Mayadunna to come over from India in 1616, and the pretender Nikapitiye adopted the second when he impersonated the prince of that name. The rebel leaders were drawn from a broad spectrum. On one side, there were Edirille Rala and three of the Mudaliyars who led the revolt in 1630. These were drawn from the members of the native aristocracy, with which went possession of considerable land and high rank in the native lascarin forces. Akaragama, as the honorific Appuhamy suggests, had royal blood in his veins, though his kinship to the royal family was not close enough for him to qualify for exile. But at the other end of the scale there were Amarakoon Manthtri who had only recently risen from the ranks, several Aracci’s or lascarin Captains, the pretender Nikapitiye who was a minor village head an, and most surprising of all, Kuruvita Rala, a fisherman’s son. The conclusion seems to be that any enterprising person who defied the Portuguese could get a following, though the task was considerably easier for those who had aristocratic lineage and held high military rank. The latter factor was particularly important, for command over the lascarin force gave the rebel leader a useful power-base and a convenient starting point. Except for the revolt of 1630, no other rebellion was preceded by a conspiracy, and no other rebel leaders had long premeditated their uprisings. Rebellions against the Portuguese were, therefore, spontaneous movements, and the role of the chance factors in igniting them was often crucial. This does not mean that the Sinhalese were rebels without cause. On the contrary, Two deeply felt sentiments provided the resistance movements with an ideology. These were, the desire to be rid of the foreigner and hostility to the Roman Catholic religion. The first was strikingly brought out in the title “Liberatador de naceo chingala” (Liberator of the Sinhalese nation) thu Edirille Rala assumed. The same feeling of antipathy to foreign rule is steal from the words of one of the rebel leaders in 1630, words expressing sorrow at the loss of liberty, horror of enslavement to a foreigner and the fear that the very name of the Sinhalese will disappear from the face of the earth.

Raja Siha ll.

War with Portuguese, ch. 96, v. 14; battle, Dighavapi, ch. 95, v. 28.

Klttislri Rajasiha.
War with Hollanders, ch. 99, v. 116.

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