The names of Kings and Generals who during the history of 2550 years, marched into battle with their armies, as recorded in our ancient text Mahavamsa  and information on Rock inscriptions, is listed below. Some of these Commanders were killed in action and there is evidence of few who were wounded in action.

Most of the Kings and their Commander were of the warrior clans, known on texts and inscriptions belonging to kat or ksatriya clan.Warrior 4

As described in the ancient texts, they were

Skilled in guiding of foot soldiers, chariots elephants and horses in battle, in bearing of the sword and versed in archery[ 5 weapons]”.

“ Versed in the procedures of war ,they worked out their war strategy and tactics with careful consideration from war text books of Kotilla[ Book still available] and Yuddhannava[ now lost] and others , with ingenuity in a way according with the locality and the time, the plans of the campaign, wrote it down , and had it handed out to the officers…”  Extracts from Mahavamsa



518BC ?Kings Mahanaga and Chulanaga  armies faced each other at Nagadipa.


483-445 BC Prince Vijaya – He was armed with Five weapons with seven hundred men attacked and sacked  yakka city Sirisavtthu.


377-307 BC Pandukabhaya I  His commander was Canda, who  commanded the first battalion of 500 soldiers raised at a cost of 100,000 Silver panas,[ First Military Budget]

307 – 267 BC             Devanampiyathissa –  Senapati Arittha , This rank was conferred by Emperor Asoka in North India.

Mahawansa 15. 212 : Deavanampiyatissa Senapati was Dighasandana m he builtba Pirivena in Mahvihare , named after him.

177-155 BC King Sura Tissa – deposed by Sena & Guttika army from India.

155-145 BC King Asela slays Sena and Guttika in battle.

205 – 161 BC             Elara[ KIA] – battle with King Asela[ KIA]

Many  Generals who fought with the King Elara’s  army is in the mahawansa ,  Mitta [ uncle of Senapati Nandi Mitta], Digahabaya[ step brother of Prince Gemunu crossed over to Elara while commanding the fortress along Mahaveli ganga], Damila Giriya[KIA], Senapathi Digajantu[ KIA by Suranimala] and Senapati Bhalluka[ KIA killed by Pussadeva arrow]. The names of those commanding the 32 fortress along the Mahavali which King Gemunu’s army overcame are all mentioned in the Mahawansa. Mahasenapati

161 – 137 BC             Dutugemunu [ WIA by Pussadeva arrow during the Battle with Bhulluka].  Dasa-maha yodayas,Mita Senapati,Pussadeva, Senpathi Velusumana, Teraputabaya, Suranimala Etc.another of Nadimitta

King Dutugemunu was known as Mahasenapati on an inscription shown above. He had 10 General were under him, there is a chapter on these Generals in the Mahawansa. Few of the grand-children of few of these Generals, and the Generals themselves have placed these famous names on Rock Inscription. Two of these inscriptions  have the an interesting sign manuals of Nada mitta. This seems to be in the shape of two crossed swords and a knife at crossing, like the badge of rank of present day  Generals.

General Mitta c

There were many inscriptions of General Pusadeva who killed Elaras Nephew  General Bhalluka by shooting him through the mouth.

Pussadeva 1 Pussadeva 2

According to Dr S Paranavitane few  Grandchildren of these Generals donated cave and traces back their ancestry to them. The names mentioned as General may very well be those .The names of  General Teraputra Abaya, Velusummana and Gotimbara as mentioned on inscriptions are shown below.

Gotimbara  Pussadeva 2 Teraputra=Abnaya

137 – 119 BC King  Saddhathissa  Senapati PussadevaSenpati Abaya

50-44 BC  King Kallatha Naga- Slain by Sepathi Kammaharattaka,

44 BC Vattagamini Abaya young brahman named Tissa advances from Ruhuna on Anuradhapura.

44-1 BC  Three Tamil Commanders  Bahiya , Piliyamaraka, Dathika

Vattagamini Abaya 7 Generals – Senpathi Kapisisa[ Killed by Vattagamini],one General of his Senpathi Uttiya built Dakkhina-vihara.

 3 BC-9 AD Prince CORANAGA  raises an Army and rebels.

12 -17 AD Queen Anula  Prince KUTAKANNA TISSA, gathers an army and deposes  ANULA


The only other Mahasenapati was King Dutugemunu, perhaps a Senapati of King Kanitha Tisa[102-109 AD]. This is found at Kanteka Cetiya at Mihintale perhaps is refreance to a Flag Ceremony.

93 AD .Queen Sivali – deposed by Prince Ilanaga the first with an army from India

120-126 AD King SUBHA    Vasabha Uncle as Senpati of Subha.

126-170 AD King VASABHA  gathers an army in Ruhuna and Slays King Subha[KIA}l

Abaya Senpati of King Bhatiya II 141-165 AD]

173-195 AD King Gajabãhu’s – Known as Yudaji conqueror in South India.King Gajabahu called Yadaji

Senavita Ahalaya-.King Mahalaka Naga


202-226 AD King Bathiya Tissa II- Senapati Ahalaya [ IC II Nelugala Inscription No 79 line 15]

245-247 AD KHUJJA NAGA’s, Prince  SIRI NAGA rebels

269-291AD –King Vorihirika Tissa brother  Prince ABHAYA NAGA rebels.

301-302 AD King Vijaya Kumara – SANGHA TISSA, the commander of the troops.

302-306 AD King SANGHA TISSA’s  Senapati  Prince Abhaya consecrated as king Samghabodhi  after  King Sangatissa death.

137vSenpathi Maga

Unidentified General at Mandagala Anuradhpura District

334-361 AD King MAHASENA – Meghavannabhaya, gathers  an army from Ruhuna and advance against King Mahasena at Anurhadapura.The famous pre battle party -meat and drinks to settles the issue.

400 AD  AD King Mitta Sena deposed by Pandu [ 6 usurpers]

Inscription on Rock Cut Steps Dambulla.

4 th Cent AD – Inscription on Rock Cut Steps Dambulla.States ” The Eleven Foot Grips[ steps] of  Badhaka Citta the General

516-526 AD  King Datusena recaptures power help of is brother Silatassabodhi who commanded the army to defeat the 6 ursurpers from India. His Senpathi Migara was his son in law, who ill treats the daughter. Son in  law joins Kassyapa to depose the King.

526-552 AD King Kassapa I [Mhv Ch 39. V 6] Senapati Migara

Prince Moggallana I  brings an army over from India .Kassayapa Takes his life when losing the battle. Mhv Ch 39 V 58] his  Senpati is Uttara, He instituted a Coastal Guard to overcome threats from India.

588-590 AD Upatissa II- His son Prince Girikassapa commanded the army that fought off Prince Silakkala army that laid siegeof Anuradhapura.

542 AD Dathapabata the second son of King Silakala occupies the throne and the elder brother Moggollana meet in battle, out of consideration for soldiers, the brothers agree to resort to single combat. After a well fought battle the younger brother elephant is wounded, so he take his own life in spite the elder brothers appeal not to do so.


7 Cent AD

AD King Moggollana II- A Mayura Clan Senevi Mana or Mahanaga from Ruhuna forms an army and advances to Rajarata during the battle of the  brothers, but retreats when Moggollana is victorious.

King Aggabodhi II- Prince Samghatissa the Senpati of the army.

King Sangatissa II- His senapati was Prince Silamegavanna.

King Jettaissa III – takes his life in battle, his Senapati was Datasiva in war with Aggabodhi III

King Datasiva – was killed in battle with King Kassayapa II,

King Manavannama- Assists the Pallava ruler Narasinhavaraman in war against Chulakas. Get army from Pallava and returns to the Island. 20 years later[ 684 AD] he returns Pallava army and defeats the Tamil Pottakutta[KIA] and Hatthadatha[KIA].

833 – 853  AC Sena – I  – [Mhv Ch 50 V 82] senpati Baddha, Senevi Kuttha

853-887 AD    Sena II [Mhv Ch 51. v. 88] Sepati Kutthaka

Dappula IV [Mhv Ch 53. v. 11] Senpathi Rakkhaka Ilanga 

Udaya IV[ Ch 53. v 46] Nayaka[ Colonel rank] Viduragga

887 – 898 AC Udaya – II-. Senpathi Kutta ,succeeded by Senpati Illanaga Sena.

898 – 915 AC Kashshapa- – IV Senpati Illanaga Sena ,Senpati Vadura and  Senpathi Udaya.

915 – 924 AC Kashshapa-  V   Sak-Senevi or General Sakka;

924 AC Dappula – IV Senapati Rakkhaka llanga,

924 – 935 AC Dappula – V ?

935 – 938 AC Udaya – II  Senpathi Vajiragga

946 – 952 AD Udaya – III   Senevi Nimula,

952 – 955 AD Sena – IV

Mihindu – IV [955 – 972 AD]  Senpathies mentioned in Mhv a. Lokenavan, Bamba-Senevi: b. Sen Senevi:

Sena V was 12 years old ,While his father Senpathi Sena was away he appointed Udaya  as the commander, Sena revolted and the King had to flee. History of Ceylon  Vol I Pt I pg 341.

982 – 1018 AD  Mihindu V–  . A Senapati named Sena who encouraged the Sinhala soldiers and the Mercenaries from India to run riot in Rajarate and Mahinda Vwithdrew to Ruhuna. Raja Raja invades the Island almost unopposed.






1055 – 1110 AD Vijayabahu – I –  As Prince Kirthi he had to battle Lokeshvara [Loka] and defeated him. He also had to battle Keshadhatu kasyapa of Kataragama. before becoming the ruler of Ruhuna. The Cholas marched on quick attack to the south but was unable to establish them self and withdrew. He caused a uprising against the Cholas, they retaliated by getting more troops from India and attacking Ruhuna under the Generals Ravideva and Chala. At the battle of Pahaluttagiri fortress Prince Kirti , defeated the Cholas and Killed the Commanders.

The Cholas brought the third army from India and Prince Kirti advanced from Ruhuna engaged them close to Anuradhapura. The Sinhala army were defeated[ Tirumukkudal Inscription] and withdrew  to Vakirigala Rock Fortress in Kegalle. He re-organised and over came a rebellion in Ruhuna and planned for the capture of Polonnaruva. His plan to send one army group along  the east coast to attack Polonnaruva from the North East and one across the Dakkina Desha[ Westren Province], to prevent any intervention of an army from India from the port of Mahatitta[ Mannar]. After these armies had reached Anuradhapura and Polonnaruva, he himself led an Army Group along the Mahaveli Ganga and attacked Polonnaruva and routed the Cholas. He had two army Commander they were Buddharaja[Budalana] and Devamalla.

Lord Budal, the Dandnayaka .In the 1950 a farmer found  a copper grant given by King Vijayabahu I to General Budalana. This is utmost importance.

Vijeyabahu plates

1131 – 1153 AD Gajaba – II   His Senpathi was Namba[ Mava (cuva)

1153 – 1186 AD Maha Parakramabahu – I

The Mahawansa records over 225 battles fought by Parakramabahu armies. He had over 50 Commanders and the battles fought by them. This is reconstructed in the history of Ceylon Volume I Part II- University of Colombo. This is shown below


(Arranged in the order they appear in the Culavamsa narrative). from History of CeylonUniversity Edition Pt II.

1. MALAYARAJA or MALARAYARA leader of the Tamil troops, stationed in the Rattakara district (69.6). Captured Mallavalana on the Puttalam coast and then fought a naval action leaft the Pearl Banks(70.62-66). Left Muttakara ,advanced to Anuradhapura to the relief of No 11 who was besieged there (Ch 70. V 155-156).

2. RAKKA, DANDADHINAYAKA of Gajabahu stationed in Yatthikanda and Dumbara, suborned by Parakkamabahu and entrusted with the subjugation of the Malayadesa (Ch 70.v 1-18), o: accomplishing which Prakramabahu appointed him Kesadhatu(Ch 70.v 19-29). Made Kesa-dhatunayaka and stationed in Merukandara district (Ch70.v 279,283) Advanced thence to Polonnaru to release Gajabahu who was imprisoned there by Manabharana (Ch 70.v 285-304), Defended Sarogama and Talanigama fords on the river- (ch 72 1-5). Fought in defense of Parakrambahu’s, person (ch72,v 106- 113) . Made Lankadhikarin and posted to Mangalabegama (ch 72.v 160). Evacuated it and re-posted there (ch 72.v 207).Decisively deafeated Manabharana at Mihiranabibbila and again at Rajatakedara in Alisara (ch 72.v 232-270), Made Senapati, by which title and thereafter called. Charged with subduing Queen Sugala’s rebellion in Rohana, he marched from Polonnaru and fought his way to beyond Urani where he was held up by the rebel forces : he was then reinforced by Bhadarapottakin Bhuta (No. 36) and the combined forces advanced beyond Bibile into Lokagalla and thence through Madagama to Udundora, fighting successfully actions on the on the way and forcing Queen Sugula to take refuge with the Tooth and Bowl Relics at Etimole ( Ch 74. V 40-83). He was now joined by No. 11 from Dighavapi, and the three forces fought several actions in the Monaragala area and captured Etimole and the Relics (Ch 74. V 99-126). But resistance broke out again in the Buttala region and the three commanders with the Relics were repeatedly attacked : at Sappanarukokilla, the Senapati Rakkha died of dysentery and at the site of his cremation, Parakrambahu built a large Alms hall (ch 74. V 133-152).

.A(unnamed2); younger brother of No. 2 and second-in-command of his troops (70.13-14).

3. LOKAJTVANA, assisted in the subjugation of Rerupallika district in Malaya (CH 70.V 24)-

4. LANKADHlNAYKA or LANKANATHA or LANKADHINATHA RAKKHA, : assisted in capture of Rerupallika district (ch 70.v 24). Then captured occupied Janapada district and advanced into Alisara district(70 v 95-122). Advanced further a capture Polonnraru: captured Polonnaru and took Gajabahu captive (Ch 70 ,v 173-178 :232-250). Made-Lankadhikarin and stationed at Mangalabegama (ch 70.v 283). Advanced hence to Polonnaru to release Gajabahu imprisoned there by Manabharana ( ch 70.v 297-310). Defended Nigundivaluka-ford on the river (ch 72, v 37-38). Then assigned to defend Mayurapasana ford, but through jealousy of No. 12( Senapati Deva), delayed to fortify himself was caught unprepared and killed in battle( Ch 72, v 70-92)

7.OTTURAMNALLAKA. The chief of Dhaumandalaya, suborned by Parakramabahu and assisted in subjugation of Kosavagga district( Chapter 70, V 17-18, 28-29).

6. SAMANTA-MALLAKA, Gajabahu’s chief of Kosavagga district, suborned BY Pakramabahu and assisted in subduing that District (Ch 70.v 26-29).

7 . KESADHATUNAYAKA TAMBA, captured Malavalliya in the west (Ch 70.v 66-67)

8. SILAGALLAKA, commanding in Moravapi ( Ch 70, v 67)

9. RAKKHADIVANA, victorious in Kalavapi district (Ch 70. v70).

10.MAYAGEHA, commanding in Nilagalla district, routed attack made on him by Gajabahu’s, general in Kalavapi district ( Ch70. V 77-86). Captured Alisara district (ch 70, v 162-172). Advanced towards Polonnaru,to Khadagama (Ch 70, v 216-217). Made Lankaadhikarin (ch 70. V 278). Defended Samirurukkha ford on the river ( Ch72, v 9-10).

11.NAGARAGIRI or NAGARAGALLA MAHINDA. head of the troop leaders, commanding on Puttalam coast : moved his forces by ship,conqured Uttararatthta established himself at the- Fortress Pilavasu (Ch 70. Verse 89-93). Advanced towards Anuradhapura, entered it and was besieged there :on being relieved by other troops sent to his aid, took station in Moravapi (ch 70. V 145-161, 199-200). In Parakramabahu’s camp at Nalanda , advanced towards Polonnaru ( Ch 70. V 200-221). Probably identical with Demala-Adhikara-Kahambalkulu-Mindalna (EZ.,IV, page 208) 11A. (Unnamed), brother of No. 11 and highest official on Parakramabahu’s personal staff ( Ch 70.v 199).

12. SENAATI DEVA, sent to Giriba to make a diversionary attack towards Anuradhapura, advanced and assisted in relief of No 11 who was besieged there (Ch 70. V 123-144, 153-161). Called from his station at Senagama and sent to command at Polonnaru after the disorders which followed its capture by No. 4 (Ch 70. Verse 245-250). Unable to secure control, was himself shut up in Polonnaru: on being released by relieving forces, report to Kantalay (Ch 70.v 285-286). Advanced from there once again to Polonnaru to release Gajabahu, who was imprisoned. by Manabharana (Ch70. v300-304). Marched Tannaru where Parakramabahu’s defeated troops had taken refuge (Ch , 70. Verse 316-317).Defended Hedillakhandagama and Billagama ford on the river, ( Chap 72, verse 45-49). Defended Vallitittha ford (Ch 72. Verse 72-83). Thence went back to Billagama ford and fought a severe battle there, and when the river-line was abandoned, retreated to Surulla (Ch 72.Verse 121-128, 138-145).

13.JIVITAPOTTHAKIN SUKHA, advanced through Alisara district to Mangalabegama (Chap 70.para 174-178) .

14.LANKADHINATHA or LANKANATHA KITTI (cf. No. 16), advanced from Nalanda towards Polonnaru (Chapter 70.v 205, 215-221). Made Lankadhikarin and posted to Kyanagama (Ch 70.v 283). Advanced thence to Polonnaru to relieve , Gajabahu imprisoned there by Manabharana (Ch 70. V 300–304). . Marched to Tannrru with No. I2 (Ch70. Verse 316-317). Defended Yakkhasukara ford of the river (Ch 72.Verse21-24). with No 12 Senapati Deva, fought severe action at Billagama ford:and when the river defence, were abandoned, retreated to Surulla ( Ch 72. V 121-128, 138-147). Sent to subjugate Dighavapi district during Queen Sugula’s rebellion together with No. 39[Kitti], and accomplished his task (Ch 74, v 89-98). He was then ordered to reinforce Nos. 2 and 36 before Etimole, and the three forces finally took Etimole and captured the relics ( chapter 74, verses 99-126). But resistance broke out again in the Buttala region ,and the three commanders with the Relics were repeatedly attacked : at this stage No. 2 Dandanayaka Rakkha died. Further fighting with the rebel ensued in the Buttala district and the King ordered the Relics to be sent to him, and, they were, accordingly, handed over to No. 10, who was in Dhaumandala, to be conveyed to Polonnaru ,( Ch 74. Verse 153-168). Nos. 44, 36 and 40 now met at Bokusala and resolved to stamp out the rebellion everywhere : they built a strong fortress at Balapsana, left it in charge of No.41, and proceed to subdue Dighavapi District once again : several actions were fought there and the rebels defeated (Ch 74 verses 169-180, Chap 75 Verses 1-18). Thereafter, Nos. 14, 36 and 40 joined the main forces of No. 42 at Kumbugama and concerted plan was drawn up to effect the capture of Queen Sugala and her remaining adherents- see under No. 42 for the rest of the campaign.

15.LANKAPURA, son of No. 1.4. Advanced towards Polonnaru, (Chap 70 verses 205, 215-221). Probably identical with the Senapati Lankapura, who commanded the Sinhalese forces a which invaded the Pandya kingdom : he is called Dandanayaka Lankapura in South Indian inscription. Defeated and decapitated by the Colas. His chief commanders on this expedition were Nos. 50, 30, 48,49, 44 and 47 ( Chap 76 verses 76-334 ; Chap 77. Verses 1-103).

16. SAKHANAYAKA KITTI (cf. No. 14), Promoted to Lankadhikarin and posted to Kyanagama (Ch 70. Verses 278, 283).

17. DANDANAKA SANKHA or SANKHADHATU. brother of No. 18, made Kesadhatunayaka and stationed at Tinimakulla (Ch 70. Verses 279-280, 284). Assisted in the capture of Polonnaru and release of Gajabahu who was imprisoned there by Manabharana ( Chap70, verses 293-304). Defended Buru-datthali ford on the river (Ch 72. Vesre 36). After general retreat from the river, sent to hold Pillavitthi district (Ch 72. Verses 161-163). Sent against Manabharana who had come out of Polonnaru, to give battle ( Ch 72. Verse 222).Took part in final victorious battle (Ch 72 v 272-391). Served under No. 42 in the final stages of the Rohana campaign against Queen Sugala (Ch 75.V 181) .

18. DANDANAYAKA KITTI, brothcr of no. 17 Dandanayaka Sankha, made Nagaragalla and. stationed at Tilimakulla (Ch 70. Verse 279-280, 284). Same service as his brother, No. 17, up to final stages of the Rohana campaign against Queen Sugala. Commander under No. 46 in the expedition to Burma and captured Kusumiya (Ch 76.verses 1-75) Called Kit Nuvaragal in the Devanagala inscription (EZ. 325)

19, .NAGARAGIRI NATHA, (cf, No. 26), advanced through Tannaru to Kotthasara district to capture Gajabahu (Ch 70. Verse 318- 326). Fought in defence of Parakramabahu’s person (Ch 72.verses 107-113).

20. JIVITAPOTTHAIN MANDIN (cf. No.40). advanced through Tannaru to Kotthasara district to capture Gajabahu (Ch 7.318-326). After general retreat from the river, sent to hold Pillavitthi district (Ch 72. Verse 161-163).

21. KESADHATU BUDDHA, defended Punagama ford on the river (Ch 72. Verse 6-8).

22. RAMA, of Nilagiri District defended Maharukkha ford on the River. ( Ch 72.V 11-13)

23. JITAGIRI SANTA, defended Viharavejjasala ford on the river ( Ch 72. Verse 25-26).

24. ADIPOTTHAKIN or BANDRAPOTTHAKIN KITTI, (Cf. No. 39),defended Assamandala ford on the river (Ch72. Verse 27-28). After general retreat from the river, stationed at Mangalabegma( Ch 72, verse 160).Thence moved to Kalavapi district : advanced towards Anuradhapura, was defeated and fell back in confusion to Kalavapi : but after being reinforced by No. 36, regained Maharattha district ( Ch 72. Verse 180-2040.Stationed at Kyanagama (Ch 72. V 207).

25.LANKAGIRI MAHI Defended Assamandala Ford on the river ( Ch 72 Verse 27-28)

26. SANKHANAKA NATHA (cf. No. 19), defended Sarogama ford in the river (Ch 72.3I-32). Under No. 42 and in company with No 30, captured Guralatthakalacha(Ch 75 Verse 75-77).

27.LANKAPURA KADAKUDA, defended Yacitagama ford on the river( Ch 72, verse 39-40), Sent against Manabharana who had come out of Polonnru to give battle.( Ch 72, Verse 222). Took part in, final victorious battle ( Ch 72, verse 272-300). Served under No. 42 in the final stages of the Rohana campaign against Queen Sugala (Ch 75, verse 181).

28.SANKANAYAKA RAKKHA, defended Hillapattakhanda ford on the river (Ch 72. Verse 41).

29.KESADHATU DEVILA, stationed in Mahaniyyama district, advanced with others into Rohana, via Navayojana, Kalagiribhanda and Digha- lika-Mahakiretta (Ch 72. Verse 55-64),

30.KESADHATU LOKA, stationed in Pancayojana district, advanced with others ,into Rohana via Navayojana, Kalagiribhanda and Dighgalika-Mahaketta( ch 72 Verse 65-64). Under No 42 and together with No:26 captured Guralattakalancha( Ch 75-Verse 75-77); Held commad under No 15in the invasion of Pandya and described as one of the two 3 best commanders (Ch 76.verse 269, 324-328).

31.KAMMANATHA ARRAKA, Advanced with others into Rohana via Navayojana, Kalagiribhanda and Dighalika-Mahakhetta (Ch 72 verse 55-64).

32.KANCUKINAYAKA RAKKHA, advanced with others into Rohana via Navayojana, Kalagiribhanda and Dighgalika-Mahaketta( ch 72 Verse 55-64). Sent under No 42 but on a different route, to capture Mahanagahula; he first despatched No 43 to occupy Gintota, ind then he advanced down the coast, joined No.43,and proceeded victoriously,through Valigama, Matara, Devanagara, Dighali etc,to Malavaratthali, diverting a part of his forces to capture Ranmalakanda (ch 75 verse 19-68). No 42 coming down the hills of Moravak korale now captured Mahanagahula and No. 32 rejoined him there.

33. CHATTAGGAHAKA RAKKHA, subdued Anuradhapura area (Ch 7 Verses 65-69).

34.MAHALEKHA RAKKHA, after general retreat from the river, sent to Hold Pillavitthi District (Ch 72.verse 161-I63), From there he captured Kalavapi ( Ch 72 verse 171-173). Part of his forces then advanced towards. Anuradhapura, were defeated and had to retire in confusion to Kala-vapi : but reinforced by No. 36, he captured Maharattha district (Ch 72, verse 180-204). Next stationed at Kyanagama (Ch 72.Verse 207).

35.MARAGIRI NIGRODHA, after general retreat from the river; sent to Uddhavapi (Ch 72.verse I64). Thence he advanced and captured Tannaru (Ch 72.verses 174-175).

36. BANDARAPOTTHAKIN  BHUTA, sent to Kalavapi district to reinforce Nos. 34 [Mahaleka Rakka] and 24[ Kitti], and in subsequent battles vanquished the enemy in Maharattha district (72.195104). Made Lankadhikarin and sent to reinforce No,2[Dandanayaka Rakka]  who was held up in his advance to Rohana : the combined forces advanced through Bibile, Lokagalla and Mridagama to Udun- dora, fighting successful battles on the way, and forced Queen Sugala to take refuge with the Tooth and Bowl relics at Etimoli(Chapter 74 v 40-88),

Senapati Rakka leading his troops got bogged down at Divacandantabatava Forests due to seven inacessable fortification built there by Queen Sugula Troops.. According to the description in the Mahawansa is forest is identified as in the neighbourhood of Hapola, 7 miles West-North- West of Bibile where the topography fits the description of the Chronicle. The description of the 7 lines fortress laid down by Queen Sugula’s troops, one to two gavutas in extent , between two mountains is in the chronicle.

The king was on a sojorn at Pollonnaruva as per the Chronicle .The King heard from the mouth of the messengers of Rakka’s constant Battles , he gave orders to Adikaran Bhuta who dwelt at his palace

“ An indecisive struggle for so long a time with these wretched rebels is fitting neither for me nor for thee; smite in pieces according to these my orders the whole of the fortifications along with their gates, slay the whole of the numerous army an send me then speedily a True report of these doing”

He assigned Bhuta numbers of soldier and sent this man experienced in art of war, to the scene of battle.

There was a Military road from Tissa to Pollonaruva and to Apura.Well marked used during many wars that was fought. Over 60 miles was paved with stone. and still exists called or marked Kalu-gal-bemma on Maps.Perhaps horse were used by messengers to carry a Military Reports and the Lines of communications were kept open and changes of horse etc well plabnned out. They might as well be called sit-reps. A situation report or a story from a collection of these is in Mahavanasa

Nos. 2 and 36 were now reinforced by No. 14 from Dighavapi, and the three forces finally captured Etimole and took possetion  of the Relics( Ch 74, v .99-126), Butresistance broke again in Buttala retion and the three commanders were repeatedly attacked at this srage No. 2 died (Ch 74. v 133-152). Fighting with the rebels continued in the Buttala region and the King ordered the Relics to be  sent to him : accordingly they were handed over to No. 40 Lankaadkaran Manju]who was in Dhanumandala ,to be sent to Polonnaru,( Ch 74. v 153-168).

Nos. 14 [ Kitti}, No 36[ Bhuta ]and 40 { Manju] now met  at Bokusala and resolved  to stamp out rebellion everywhere ; they  built a strong-fortress at Balapasana, and, leaving it in charge of No41[ Lankapura Kitti], entered Dighavapi district, fought several action there  and defeated the rebels (Ch 74. v 169-180 ; Ch 75. V 1-18).  Nos. 14, 36 and 40 then  joined the main forccs of No. 42[ Demalaadikarin Rakka- perhaps a the title given during the period] at Kumbugama and a concerted plan was drawn up to capture Queen Sugala and the remaining adherents ; see under No. 42 for the rest of the campaign.

37. KAMMANAYAKA or KAMMANATHA ANJANA, posted to Kyanagama (Ch 72. V 206). Received from No. 40 at Dhanumandala the relics captured from Queen Sugala and conveyed them to the King at Polonnaru (Ch 74. V 168).

38.LOKAGALLA, sent against Manabharana who had come out of Polonnaru to give battle (Ch 72:Verse222).

39. JIVITAPOTTHAKIN KITTI (cf, No. 24), sent under No. 14 to subdue Digavapi District and completed the task(Ch 74 verse 89-98.

40.LAKHADIKARIN MANJU (cf. No. 20),Sent subdued rebels in Sapatagama and occupied the area. (Ch 74. Verse 127-132). Thereafter he subdued Lokagalla and Dhanumandala and, at the latter place, received the captured Relics from Nos. l4 and 36 and entrusted them to No. 37 who conveyed them to Polonnaru (Ch 74. Verse 165-168). Nos. 40,l4 and 36 now met at Bokusala and resolved to stamp out rebellion everywhere : they built a strong fortress at Balapasana, left it in charge of No. 41, entered Dighavapi district again, fought several actions and defeated the rebels (Ch 74.V 169-180). No. 40 took station at Huyalagama and then the troops of Nos. 14, 36 and 40 joined the main force of No. 42 at Kumbugama and made plans to capture the fugitive Queen Sugala and her remaining followers : see under No. 42 for the remainder of the campaign.

41.LANKAPURA KITTI (may be the same as. No. 5) was left by Nos., 14, 36 and 40 in charge of the fortress of Balapasarra while they went on to subdue Dighavapi ( Ch 74. V 178-179)

42.DAMILADHIKARIN RAKKHA, assigned the task, together with No.32 but on different routes, of capturing Mahanagahula (Ch 75. V 19-20). He advanced to Denavaka, sent forward Nos. 26 and 30, and then, together with them, captured Guralatthakalancha but was forced back to Denavaka. Then he began to reduce resistance systematically around Kahavatta, Madampe, Rakvana, Burkanda and beyond into Moravak Korale and Obada as far as Mahasenagama, and then occupied Mahanagahula. Here he was joined by .No. 32. The Koggalla area was subdued and fighting proceeded further eastwards beyond Mahagama under detachments commanded by Nos. 44 and 45. As a stratagem, No. 42 now evacuated the low country and retired to Puvakdandava : the rebels in hiding thereupon came out into the open and No. 42 returned with his forces ,via Bovala, Urubokka and Migoda, effectively crushing them, and halted at Kumbugama. Here he was joined by Nos. 14, 36 and 40 and plans were made to destroy the remaining rebels and capture Queen Sugala. First, Dvadasasahassa was cleansed of rebels and firm control established from Mahanagahula. Then a vigorous-pursuit of the queen into Atthasahasm organized from Kumbugama and she and her followers were defeated at Vanagama, the queen being taken captive. Further sporadic resistance was quelled by Nos .17,18 and 27. Rohana was finally pacified, No. 36 was left behind as Governor, and the rest returned to Polonnaru with the captive queen and the spoils of war (ch 75. verses76-203).

43. KESADHATU DEVARAJA who was in Pancayojana was sent by No. 32 down the coast to occupy Gintota (Ch 75.v 21-24). There he was joined by No. 32 and went on with him to Malavaratthali (Ch 75. Verses 34-68).

44.LANKAPURA DEVA served under No. 42 in Hambantota district (ch 75.v130). He commanded a division under No. 15 in the invasion of Pandya a (Ch 76.v 250, 310-313, 325, 326).

45.MULAPOTKHAKRN MANA, served under No. 42 and woll a victory et Mahagama (Ch 75.138-140).

46.DAMATLADIKKARIN ADICCA, commanded the expedition to Burma under him was No. 18. (Ch 76.1.-75).

47.LANKAGIRI SORA, commander under No. 15, in the invasion of Pandya (Ch 76.250).

48. KESADATU KITTI. Commander under No. 15 in invasion of Pandya and described as one of the two best commanders (Ch 76.255,269).

49. SENAPTI JAGADVTJAYA, second-in-command under No. 15 in the invasion of Pandya : called dandanayaka Jayadratha or Jagatrana in Cola inscriptions : captured and decapitated by the Colas (Ch76.292, 333 ; Ch 77.3,15-1,03).

50. GOKANNA, commander under No. 15 in the invasion of Pandaya (Ch 7p. 253, 270, 324, 326).

.Lankapura Dandanatha Senavi 2. Jagath Vijaya Senavi 3. Kit Nuvaragal Senevi.Devenagala Inscription

The inscription at Mavanella, describing the Military expedition of Kit Nuvarval to Burma

The inscription at Mavanella, describing the Military expedition of Kit Nuvarval to Burma

1197-1201 AD

During period of 1197-1    Many strong Generals played a prominent role in the country-. They were the power behind the throne and the rulers were not able  to assert their authority without incurring the wrath of these Generals.

Nissankamalle[1187-1196 AD]- Lak-Vijaya-Singu- Senevi –Tavurunavan who lead the  expedition to Pandyan country.Loyal to Kalinga Royal family. Protected the King ruvan- dambu. Quelled the revolt which broke out during Regign of Vijayabahu II.

Queen Lilavati[1197-1200AD]- Lak Vijeya  Singu- Kit- Senevi deposed of King Codaganga. General Kitti is praised by a verse in Sasadavata “ He was like a Lion deposing of a herd of Elephants[Cholas], three times. First the Colas had landed atMavatutota and marched to Anuradhapura, the second they landed at Salvattota and marched up to Sripura

King Sahasamalle[1200-1202 AD], Queen Kalyanavati[1202-1208 AD], King Dharmasoka1208-1209 AD]- Were raised to the throne by Lak Vijaya Singu- Senevi- Abonavan. After elevating them to the throne he deposed of Kalyanavati and Sahasamalle.

King Sahasamalle[1200-1202 AD]- An Inscription of this King at Kevulgama[ EZ III No23 p 234-5] grants a piesce of land to his supporter  Gulpiti But for” for the wounds which he got in loyalty to the King from weapons( of the kings enemies)].

Queen Kalayanavati Ruvanveli Dagabo a General by the name of Bhandarapota Pirivatubin Vijaya-navan. During her 8th year of reign a Tamil force landed in Ceylon and destroyed it from the Minipe Inscription of General Bhama. It also mentions that the General Abonavan [Ayasmanta] who raised her to the Throne is the same Amati Ati killed during this invasion.

King Dharmasoka[1208-1209 AD]- raised to the throne by Ayasmanta was a five month old infant and the General ruled in his name.Both were slain by Anikanga[17 days]. Who in turn was killed  by his General Camunakka. Who placed  Queen Laliavati1209 AD] on the throne. Dr.Paranavitane is of opinion that this incident is the same mentioned in Minipe Inscription.

Queen Lilavati[ 1210 AD]. General Prakrama a member that belong to Kallunaru family with historical background to a famous family during King Vijeyabahu I [ Abangamuva Rock Inscription], placed Queen Lilavati for the third time. She ruled for 7 months

Nissankamalla [1187 – 1196 AD –Lag-vijayasingu/ Lakvijayasingu Senavi :Nissanka General

1196 – 1197 AD Codaganga – Rakalna. Lak-vijaysingu-Senevi :General Lakvijayasingha Rakalna, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army of King. (IC.VI, 89,C.3)

1187-1196 AD Nissankamalle[]- Lak-Vijaya-Singu- Senevi –Tavurunavan

1197-1200 AD Queen Lilavati– The general was Lak Vijeya  Singu- Kit- Senevi

1200-1202 AD King Sahasamalle – The General was Lak Vijaya Singu- Senevi- Abonavan.Sahaamalla Ins


1202-1208 AD Queen Kalayanavati  – Two generals Senavi Bhandarapota Pirivatubin Vijaya-navan and  Senpati Bhama.

1208-1209 AD King Dharmasoka- Senavi Ayasmanta

1209 AD General Anikanga[17 days].

1209 AD Lilavati[] Senavi Camunakka

1208-1209 AD Dharmasoka] Lak Vijaya Singu- Senevi- Abonavan

1210 AD Queen Lilavati[]. General Prakrama

1212 – 1215 AD Parakramapandu

1215 – 1236 AD Kalinga- Maga

Senapaties  named Subha  [Yapahuva] ,Bhuvanekabahu [Govindahela or Westminster Abbey], (camupati) Sankha, [Gangadoni’ in the district of Manimekhala]


1220- 1224 AD Vijayabahi – III- His ambitions was

“I will not spare the damsel of Lamka to anyone else but make her the spouse of my own”

In the defense of the Island to defeat the invader from India King  Kalinga Magha , a 40 years of warfare is described briefly in Rajavaliya as

‘Raising a Sinhalese Army , he went out and caused the forts of the Tamils in various villages to surrender, and the fort at Polonnaruva to surrender; attacked, expelled and destroyed the Tamils who dealt in the Vanni districts,………………………………………… He brought Maya rata and other two countries under one canopy and received tributes”.

There were Kings Magha with an army of 24,000 Kerala soldiers and Jayabahu with an army of 20,000 opposing Vijeyabahu. Magha rmy commander was Senapati Manabarana. During this period there were two invasions by King Candrabhahu a Javaka Kings from South East Asia.

Initial stages of Magha Invasion many military leaders occupied places of protections in the rocky mountains[ Giridugga] and forest strongholds[ Vanadrugga].

The King himself establish his stronghold at Jambuddoni[ Dambadeniya] 75 miles away from Polonnaruve where Magha established himself.

Senapati Subha- occupied Subhapabbata [ now Yapuhuva] to Fend off the Kerala devils and protect the surrounding country and the order.

Senapati Bhuvenekabahu[ an adipada of royal stock]  fortified himself at Govindamala or Govindesala[ Westminister Abbey]. and did like wise.

Camputi[ commander] Sanka set himself up on Gangadoni in the ditrict of Manimekhala.

There were many chieftan that held sway in the forest tract knon as Simhala maha vannin[ great sinhalese vanni Chieftans].

During the second invasion of Candabhahu Th King Occupied the Lofty mountain of Vatagiri[Vakirigala in Kegalle district..

He had a General named Deva-Pathiraja.

The King sent his younger brother Tilokamalla with necessary garrisons at Wattalagama[ present Wattale ] for protection of any enemy from South Western and Soutern parts of the Island.

Protection from opposite side [Northern ] he entrusted to his brother Bhuvanekabahu from Yapahuwa.

Vijayabahu and Virabahu who  had shown great fighting ability during the inyial stags of war took over the general supervision and of the overall defense strategy.

1234 -1269 AD Parakramabahu – II  –, Seneradu Mita:

1267 – 1270 AD Vijayabahu – IV

1271-1272 AD King Viayabahu IV  is killed by Senpathi Mitta, in turn beheaded by ariya commander named Thakuraka.

1270 -1283 AC Buvanekabahu – I, Rajaputra Thakura Artha Deva Adittya Senevi –

1287 – 1293 AC Parakramabahu – III Polonnaruwa



1293 – 1302 AC Buwanekabahu – II

1302 – 1326 AC Panditha Parakramabahu – IV

Buwanekabahu – III

Vijayabahu – V


1341 – 1353 AC Buvanekabahu – IV

1344 – 1357 AD Parakramabahu – V [Dedigama /Gampola]

1357 – 1374 AC Vickramabahu – III

1372 – 1408 AC Buvanekabahu – VParakra VI Sword

Kouravara Aditya Arasa Nilayitta Ile Nága (appointed in A.D. 1374 by Vira / Vijey Bahu of Kotte, brother of regent Bhuwaneka Báhu V)


1392 – 1397 AC Veerabahu –

1397 – 1410 AC Veera Aalakeshvara

1412 – 1467 AC Parakramabahu – VI Kotte -Kuruvira Arasa Nilayitta Maha Naga appointed A.D. 1416- by  (Sri Sangabo Parakrama Bahu VI)the sword of this last General who helped unite Sri Lanka under one local monarch is in the Colombo  Museum.

1467 – 1472 AC Jayabahu – II Kotte

1472 – 1480 AC Buvanekabahu – VI Kotte Sapumal (Sembap-Perumal) Kumara, general of Parakramabahu VI’s 2nd Jaffna campaign (he becomes Prince of  Jaffna and then King Buvenekabahu VI)

1480 – 1484 AC Parakramabahu – VII Kotte

VIII 1484- 1508 AC Veera Parakramabahu –Kotte

1508 – 1528 AC Darma Parakramabahu – IX Kotte & Kelaniya. The Brothers of the Prince Sakalawalabahu, Taniya wallabahu  commanded the armies, and fought against the Moor army that landed at Puttalum. Prince  Sakalawallabuhu commanded the army to Kandy

Vijayabahu – VII 12 Years AC Kotte.

. De Brito the Portuguese Commander loots Colombo

A Sinhala warrior named Proytela Rala first planned attack on Colombo Stockade.

1522 – 1551 AC Buwanekabahu- – VII Kotte

Weediye Bandara – Sub King/General of Parakrama Bahu VIWickrasin Sword

1521 – 1581 AC  King Mayadunna  Senevi Vikramasinha Mudaliar.



  1. Is the language that the older inscriptions are written in, Old Sinhala? I’m just curious, that’s all…

  2. Is very much the Hela basa similar toPali and some times to Sanskrit, but shorter words.

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