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For the Commander of 21 Cent      click-

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commander_of_the_Army_%28Sri_Lanka%29-    Gen J Jayasuriya, Gen Sarath Fonseka etc.

Mahavansa is on line- http://www.lakdiva.org.


The ancient armies were commanded by a  what is known as a Senpathi.According to the only ancient  book on military science mentioned in our ancient text Mahawamsa is the Kautiliya’s Arthsastra. This book in Chapter 33 section 51, defines the activities on the Commandant of the Army as

  1. He shall be trained in the science of all kinds of fighting with all kinds of Weapons.
  2. He shall master the riding and control Elephants , Horses and Chariots.
  3. He shall be conversant in the employment of  the Four Fold  Troops in Battle.
  4. He shall   be conversant and be able to a.select suitable ground and Season ,favourable and advantage  to own troops for battle,Arraying a force against enemy arrays deployed, Breaking  unbroken  ranks of the Enemy, Reforming broken ranks of own troops, Breaking the  compact ranks of the enemy and destroying them.
  5. He shall be conversant in destroying Enemy forts and fortifications.
  6. He shall select correct Season for all Military expeditions.

Is there any mention of this type of training for our ancient commanders of Sinhalese Armies??. Yes or perhaps, and not in many words as above, Two example that strike anybody reading the Mahavansa are

  • In Chapter  XI verse 20 – 26:  The four envoys of King Devanam piyatissa[247=207 BC] sent to the  court of Asoka was Prince Maharttha . They spent five months and sent many items for the consecration of a king etc. Arittha was bestowed the rank of Senapathi , the commander of the army. Was he idle during the five months or did he master  or share the Military knowledge of King Asoka who had conquered most of India. The Arthasastra was written during the reign of Asoka’s  grandfather. Did he master the Military aspect required of that rank for him to have such a rank bestowed up on him.???
  • A brief resume of the Miltary qualification of the two son of King Kavantissa[ 1 Cent BC] is given in chapter XXIV verse 1-3. Skilled in the guiding Elephants and horses, and in bearing the Sword and versed in Archery did the Prince Gamini dwell thenceforth in Mahagama. The Prince Tissa equipped with troops and Chariots did the King cause to be stationed at Digavapi in order to guard the open country. This perhaps sums up the training of commanders.


The offices, dignities and titles of ancient and  medieval army officers are described By W.  Geiger in Culawansa Pt I.

“Imposing array of expressions and designations are given in the Mahavansa, these are not merely general terms for officials and may be  strictly defined sphere of action or rank with an expected responsibility.

During the medieval periods the senior officers of the Army were  Adhikarans or Adhinayaka. Geiger states that these terms almost certainly represent a difference in degree of Command. In chapter 70 verse 278- Parakramabahu conferred on Adhinatha Mayageha as a reward for his military services, the Dignity of an Adhikarin[ adhikarapadam].The title of  Damiladhikarin was given to a Rakkha{ Ch 75 Verse 20] and the title of Ganakamacca to a Adicca[ Ch 76 Verse 39]. Geiger opinion is that the title Amacca[ Amataya] a Minister may be  used for both civil and military officials. ” Samata’  he believes to be a purely military title. It has the meaning as our word ” officer“, Corp-Commanders of various ranks  subject to the Commanding in Chief ” [Examples Chap 68 Verse 16; 70,56;  70, 67; 70,173; 314-6; 319]. Even when it stands for mandalika it probably means a military official alongside of  the civilian of a small district or province.

Nayaka would be used for both Civil and Military, in the military it corresponds to the English ” Colonel “.  Sirinaga , the uncle of Jetthatissa bears this title{ Chapter 44 Verse 70], Vajjiragga is the Nayaka of Udaya II[ Ch 51 Verses 105 and 118].

Dandanayaka is certainly denotes an officer of the highest rank. The rendering of it by General probably meet the case, During Parakrambahu wars two brother named Kitti and Samkadhatu bears this title[ Ch 70 verse 279], Nagagiri  Ch 70.Verse 68 and others[ Ch 70 verse 5]

The post of    Senpathi or Commander-in- chief  was a position of great power and responsibility. They were drawn from nobility and were close relations of the King in most times.His position without doubt one of extreme importance and the king only granted it to a man in whom he had the fullest confidence.Dhatusena appoints his sister’s son senapati[ 38.81]. In then same way Parakramabauhu II in war against the Javakas , entrusts the highest command in the army to his sister’s son Virabahu[ Ch 83.41] Geiger thinks that this position is not always reserved for the siters son, but only if he had the necessary qualification and traing and if he possessed the confidence of the monarch. Udaya who had  distinguished himself by his courage, was made senapti by his father King Mahinda II[Ch 48.154] just as Mahinda, afterwards Mahinda II , was made senpati by his father Aggabodi VI.The Chronicles mentions the whole lot of senapati from the royal families by name without saying how they were related to the King[ Ch 48.78].

A special title is that of Sakka-senapati. Kassyapa appoints as such his own son Ch 52 V 52,61,64,72 and 74]. after his death the dignity is transferred to his son, thus to Kasspa’s grandson[ Ch 52. v 79]. Geiger belives this title is a synonym of Saksenavi of Bilibeva Inscription[ EZ II 40ff] A synonym  od Sakkasenpathi is sakkasenevi[ ch 53 v 53] .

There is a Andhaseapati in Ch 41.87] perhaps given to a Vaddha clan[ Andha].l


This is not laid down in ancient text, but when  modes recommended in  Arthasastra on the mobilization of troops and that of the method of mobilising the Sinhala army by King Kavantissa as described in chapter XXII under heading Levying of the Warriors- some deduction  can be arrived at.

Arthasastra.[ 10.6.45]

Every ten basic units[ Anga] shall be placed under  a Patika [company commander]  for every ten Patikas there  shall be a Senpathi[ A battalion Commander] , for every ten Senpathis there shall be a Nayaka[According to Indian sources[ Kautiliya] Senpathi is not a Commanding positions, he is the commander of 10 padikas and there are 10 senpathies under One Nayaka] .The responsibility of mobilisation and Demobilisation shall be that of Senpathies and Nayakas.

Mahavamsa  Ch XXIII verse 96-

The King commanded each ten great Warriors[ Dasa Maha-yodhas]to find ten warriors. Then commanded these hundred to to levy ten each one the Thousand warriors to levy ten each. and reckoned together altogether eleven thousand one hundred and ten warriors[ Yodhayas].[ Verse 101 – They all continually received  honourable Guerdon ( A reward or compensation]  from the ruler of the land and abode surrounding the Prince Gamini]

What we could infer from these facts ?.

PAY STRUCTURE[ Arthasastra 5.3]

No reference  in text books of Sri Lankan text are to me.? But Senapati was paid 48,000  silver kahapanas per year.The commanders of the four  wins[ Foot, Cavalry, Chariots and Elephants were paid 8,000  per year, Division commanders were paid 4000, and specailist soldiers were paid 500  per year in the Indian armies..


The earliest of who fought wars in  this Island of Sri lanka is recorded in Ramayanaya. This  text where many battles are described and the tactics there in,  were lesson s for  all our Warrior Kings and their General who were of the Ksatriya Caste.

An Inscription at Babaragastalawa? of a Ravana.

Ravana – Emperor (commander-in -chief) of pre Sinhala Lanka.

Rama & Hanuman – conquest of Lanka (Hanuman is reputed to be the brain-child of the flame brigade).


Prince Sidharhta  Gautama.

The tradition is that Prince  Sidhartha who was a trained Ksatriya Warrior was offered the Command of the Maghadan Army by King Bimbisara.  The refusal of request lead to a life long friendship between the two.

Prince Vijaya – conquest of Yaksha kingdom, Lanka

Pandukabhaya I  Anuradhapuraya His commander was Canda[ Son of Pandula the Brahmin], who Commanded the troops in the war at  Lohitavahakhanda.Canda was the brother of his Queen  Suvvannapali. The first military Budget of 100.000 Kahapanas to raise the first battalion of 500 soldiers called Balats.[ Maghavansa].

Devanampiyathissa 40 Years 307 – 267 BC Anuradhapuraya – Arittha was the King  nephew who was head of delegation to King Asoka Court. Arittha was conferred the rank of Senpathi by king Asoka [Mhv] .  General Aritta was his Nephew. Many kings  that followed  appointed their sister Son as army commander. Famous was  King Dhatusena’s  nephew Senpathi Migara who married the King’s daughter and ill-treated her.[ Read story of Kasayapa- Mahavansa]

Elara 44 Years 205 – 161 BC Anuradhapuraya– Had many Commander under him commanding different Forts.

a. .General Mitta a Sinhalese and uncle of the famous Nandi Mitta.


Dutugemunu 24 Years 161 – 137 BC Anuradhapuraya.  The King is addressed as Maha-senpathi in Inscription. Shown below is a  imprint of the seal with the Royal Emblem, the Railed Swastika.The Kings usually marched to battle mounted on an Elephant. Perhaps a tradition of the great kings  of the Purus or  the Okavansa[Okkaka or Mahasamata Dynasty], whome most kings claimed connections to. Perhaps they followed the tradition of that giant  King of the Purus Dynasty who during the invasion of Alexander the great  in to the upper region of Punjab. Porus as called by the Greeks fought a battle on Elephant back , though he was out maneuvered by the Cavalry of the Greeks. The Macedonian army lost it zeal for further conquest after this battle and returned home.

An Inscribed Seal reading ? “MaHa Se na pa tha”???- Ruvan Fonseka

His ten Generals  known as the dasa-maha yodayas. The most famous is Mita. These are well described in our ancient text, the history of each yodaya is in detail. The inscriptions of five of them were identified by Dr S,Paranavitane in Paladins of Dutugemunu- Inscriptions of Ceylon Volume I 1972.

Mita Senapati; Chief Mitta, the General; the Commander-in-Chief of the Army King Duttha Gamani Abhaya (BC.161-137)  (IC.I, 620).

Another Inscription of General Mitta.

Pussadeva. One very important cave inscriptions is found on the Road side  to Uda-Walave SLEME Base workshops at  Sankapali Vihare, Pallebadde.

An Inscription of  Senpathi Velusumana, he was an expert on horses, he captured the two fastest horses from King Elara during the period of king Kavantissa when Queen Vihra-Maha Devi was expecting the baby Prince Gemunu.Probably to interbreed and improve the breed of horses at Ruhuna.An Inscription of Teraputabaya.

Saddhathissa 18 Years 137 – 119 BC Anuradhapuraya.

A seal probably authorising an important  Palm leaf document , probably of King Sadatissa inscribed in the sinhala script of that period, compare with that on inscription.

 Pusadeva, Senapati: General Phussadeva, an Army Commander of King Saddha-Tissa (BC.137-119 AD) ( IC. Vol I, 724,725). His father was the Pussadeva senior of Dutugemunu General



Placed below is what may interest any reader of the Mahavamsa various subjects which may be of Military Interest.


LANJA TISSA Nine years and one half-month did he reign here.

When Lanjatissa was dead his younger brother named KHALLATA NAGA reigned six years.

Thereupon the Damilas made war upon the king; in a battle near Kolambalaka the king was vanquished. Near the gate of the Tittharama he mounted into his car and fled

Vattagamini Abaya[        } 7 Generals

Of the seven Damilas one, fired with passion for the lovely Somadevi, made her his own and forthwith returned again to the further coast. Another took the almsbowl of the (Master) endowed with the ten miraculous powers, that was in Anuradhapura, and returned straightway, well contented, to the other coast.

But the Damila PULAHATTHA reigned three years, making the Damila named Bahiya commander of his troops. BARIYA slew PULAHATTHA and reigned two years; his commander-inchief was PANAYAMARAKA. PANAYAMARAKA slew BARIYA and was king for seven years; his commander-in-chief was PILAYAMARAKA. PILAYAMARAKA slew PANAYAMARAKA and was king for seven months; his commander-in-chief was DATHIKA. And the Damila DATHIKA slew PILAYAMARAKA and reigned two years in Anuradhapura. Thus the time of these five Damila-kings was fourteen years and seven months.

One of the seven warriors[ Senpathies] of the king  Uttiya built, to the south of the city, the so-called Dakkhina-vihara.

Senpati Abaya


VATTA GAMANI’s son known as CORANAGA lived as a rebel under the rule of Mahacula. When MAHACULI had departed: he came and reigned.

After his death king MAHACULI’s son ruled three years as king, being known by name TISSA. But Coranaga’s spouse, the infamous Anulä, had done her infamous (consort) to death, giving him poison, because she was enamoured of one of the palace-guards. And for love of this same palace-guard Anulä now killed TISSA also by poison and gave the government into the hands of that other.

When the palace-guard, whose name was SIVA, and who (had been) the first of the gate-watchmen, had made ANULA his queen he reigned a year and two months in the city.

When the princess ANULA (who desired to take her pleasure even as she listed with thirty-two of the palace-guards)

But king MAHACULI’s second son, named KUTAKANNA TISSA, who had fled from fear of ANULA and had taken the pabbajja returned hither when, in time, he had gathered an army together, and when he had slain the wicked ANULA he, the ruler of men, reigned twenty-two years.

After his death his son, the prince named BHATIKABHAYA, reigned twenty-eight year

After the death of Bhatikaraja his younger brother named MAHADATHIKA MAHA NAGA reigned twelve year

After MAHA DATHIKA ‘s death AMANDA GAMANI, his son, reigned nine years and eight months

General Jhuvaya


His younger brother, the prince KANIRAJANU TISSA, reigned three years in the city, when he had slain his brother.

After KANIRAJANU’s death AMANDA GAMANI’s son, the prince CULABHAYA, reigned a year.

After the death of CULABHAYA his younger sister SIVALI, the daughter of AMANDA, reigned four months. But AMANDA’s nephew named ILANAGA dethroned Sivali and raised the parasol (of sovereignty) in the capital. When, one day, in the first year (of his reign), the king went to the Tissa-tank, many of the Lambakannas deserted him and went back to the capital. When the king saw them not he was wroth and (in punishment) he ordered that they, even they themselves, should make a road to the Mahäthüpa, commanding to stamp it down firmly, where it ran beside the tank, and he set caudalas to be their overseers. And full of anger because of this the Lambakannas came together, and when they had taken the king captive and imprisoned him in his palace they themselves administered the government; but the king’s consort put festal garments on her little son the prince Candamukhasiva, gave him into the hands of the serving-women and sent him to the state-elephant, charging (the attendants) with a message.

When the king had stayed three years on the other coast he raised an army and went by ship to Rohana. Having landed at the haven Sakkharasobbha the king assembled there in Rohana a mighty force. Then came the king’s state-elephant forthwith out of the southern Malaya to Rohana to do him service. As he had heard there the Kapi-jataka from the great thera, the preacher of jatakas, named Mahäpaduma, who dwelt in the (vihara) called Tuladhara, he, being won to faith in the Bodhisatta, restored the Nagamahavihara and gave it the extension of a hundred unbent bows in length, and he enlarged the thüpa even to what it has been (since then); moreover, he made the Tissa-tank and the tank called Dura.

When the king had raised an army he marched to battle; when the Lambakannas heard this they also prepared themselves for battle. Near the gate of Kapallakkhanda on the field of Hankarapitthi was waged the battle between the two (armies) that brought destruction to both.

Since their bodies were exhausted by the sea-journey, the king’s men yielded their ground, therefore the king proclaimed his name and pressed forward. Terrified thereat the Lambakannas threw themselves down upon their belly, and they hewed off their heads and heaped them up high as the nave of the (king’s) waggon-wheel, and when this had come to pass three times the king, from pity, said: `Slay them not, but take them captive living.’

When then the king had come into the capital as victor in battle and had raised the parasol (of sovereignty) he went to a festival at the Tissa-tank.’ And when he, fully arrayed in his ornaments and armour, had withdrawn from the watersports and reflected on the good-fortune that he had attained, and thought of the Lambakannas who had opposed his progress, he was wroth and commanded that they be yoked two and two behind one another to his car, and thus did he enter the city in front of them. Halting on the threshold of the palace the king gave the command: `Here on this threshold, soldiers, strike off their heads.’ `These are but oxen yoked to thy chariot, O lord of chariots; therefore let their horns and hoofs be struck off,’ thus admonished by his mother the king recalled (the order) to behead them and commanded that their nose and toes be cut off. The district where the elephant had stayed the prince allotted to the elephant; and therefore the tract is called Hatthibhoga.

So ILANAGA, ruler of the earth, reigned full six years as king in Anuradhapura.

After the death of ILANAGA his son CANDAMUKHA SIVA reigned eight years and seven months as king

Having slain Candamukha Siva in the festival-sports at the Tissa-tank his younger brother, known by the name YASALALAKATISSA, reigned as king in delightful Anuradhapura, the fair face of Lanka, seven years and eight months.

Now a son of Datta the gate-watchman, named SUBHA, who was himself a gate-watchman, bore a close likeness to the king. And this palace-guard SUBHA did the king Yasalalaka, in jest, bedeck with the royal ornaments and place upon the throne and binding the guard’s turban about his own head, and taking himself his place, staff in band, at the gate, he made merry over the ministers as they paid homage to (SUBHA) sitting on the throne. Thus was he wont to do, from time to time.

Now one day the guard cried out to the king, who was laughing: `Why does this guard laugh in my presence?’ And SUBHA the guard ordered to slay the king, and he himself reigned here six years under the name SUBHARAJA.

One sprung of the Lambakanna (clan), named VASABHA, whose home was in the northern province, served under his uncle, a commander of troops. Since it was declared: `One named Vasabha shall be king,’ the king at that time commanded that all in the island who bore the name of Vasabha should be slain. The commander, thinking: `We must deliver up our Vasabha to the king,’ and having taken counsel

with his wife (upon the matter) set out early in the morning to go to the king’s residence. And the wife, to guard Vasabha carefully who went with him, put betel into his hand but without powdered chalk.

Now when the commander, at the gate of the palace, saw the betel without chalk, he sent him back for chalk. When Vasabha came for the chalk the commander’s wife spoke with him secretly, gave him a thousand (pieces of money) and aided him to take flight. Vasabha went to the Mahavihara and by the theras there was provided with milk, food and clothes, and when he had again heard from a leper the certain prophecy that be would be king, rejoicing he resolved: `I will be a rebel’ And when he had found men suited (to his purpose) he went, seizing in his further course village by village, according to the instruction (in the story) of the cake,’ to Rohana, and gradually winning the kingdom to himself he advanced, after two years, with theneedful army and train, towards the capital. When the mighty VASABHA had conquered SUBHARAJA in battle he raised the parasol of sovereignty in the capital. His uncle had fallen in battle. But his uncle’s wife, named Pottha, who had first helped him, did king VASABHA raise to be queen.

For safety he built up the city wall even so high (as it now is) and he built fortress -towers at the four gates and a palace besides; in the garden he made a tank and put geese therein.

he reigned forty-four years in the capital.After VASABHA’s death his son VANKANASIKA TISSA reigned three years in Anuradhapura

After Gajabãhu’s death the king’s father-in-law MAHALLAKA NAGA reigned six years

King Gajabahu called Yadaji


AFTER the death of MAHALLA NAGA his son BHATIKA TISSA reigned twenty-four years in Lanka.

After the death of BHATIKA TISSA (his younger brother) KANITTHA TISSA reigned eighteen years in the island of Lankä

After KANITTHA TISSA’s death his son, who was known as KHUJJA NAGA, reigned one year. The younger brother of KHUJJA NAGA, KUNCHA NAGA, when he had slain the king his brother, reigned two years in Lanka.

But the brother of KUNCHA NAGA’s consort, the commander of troops, SIRI NAGA, became a rebel against the king, and when he was equipped with troops and horses he moved on to the capital and when he, in battle with the king’s army, had put king KUNCHA NAGA to flight, victorious lie reigned over Lanka nineteen years in splendid Anuradhapura.

After the death of SIRI NAGA his son VOHARIKA TISSA reigned twenty two years, with knowledge of (the) law and (the) tradition. Because he first in this country made a law that set aside (bodily) injury (as penalty) he received the name king VOHARIKA TISSA

This king’s younger brother, known as ABHAYA NAGA, who was the queen’s lover, being discovered (in his guilt) took flight for fear of his brother and went with his serving-men to Bhallatittha and as if wroth with him, he had his uncle’s hands and feet cut off. And that he might bring about division in the kingdom, he left him behind here and took his most faithful followers with him, showing them the example of the dog, and he himself took ship at the same place and went to the other shore. But the uncle, Subbadeva, went to the king and making as if he were his friend he wrought division in the kingdom. And that he might have knowledge of this, ABHAYA NAGA sent a messenger thither. When Subhadeva saw him he loosened (the earth) round about an areca-palm, with the shaft of his spear, as he walked round (the tree), and when he had made it thus (to hold) but feebly by the roots, he struck it down with his arm; then did he threaten the (messenger), and drove him forth. The messenger went and told this matter to ABHAYA NAGA. And when he knew this, ABHAYA NAGA took many Damilas with him and marched from there against the city to do battle with his brother. On news of this the king took flight, and, with his consort, mounting a horse he came to Malaya. The younger brother pursued him, and when he had slain the king in Malaya, he returned with the queen and reigned eight years in the capital as king.


After ABHAYA NAGA’s death, SIRI NAGA II, the son of his brother Tissa, reigned two years in Lanka.

SIRI NAGA’s son named VIJAYA-KUMARAKA reigned for one year after his father’s death.

(At that time) three Lambakannas lived in friendship at Mahiyangana: Samghatissa and Samghabodhi, the third being Gothakabhaya. When they were coming (to Anuradhapura) to do service to the king, a blind man who had the gift of prophecy, being by the edge of the Tissa-tank, cried out at the sound of their footsteps: `The ground bears here three rulers of the earth!’ As Abhaya, who was walking last, heard this he asked (the meaning of the saying). The other uttered yet again (the prophecy). `Whose race will endure?’ then asked again the other, and he answered:

`That of the last.’ When he had heard that he went (on) with the two (others). When they were come into the capital the three, being the close and trusted (counsellors) of the king, remained in the royal service about the king.

When they together had slain king Vijaya in his royal palace the two (others) consecrated SANGHA TISSA, the commander of the troops, as king. Thus crowned did SANGHA TISSA reign four years in stately Anuradhapura.

And Abhaya consecrated as king Samghabodhi who was charged with the (command of) the army.

The king, who was known by the name SIRI SAMGHABODHI, reigned two years in Anuradhapura, keeping the five precepts.

The king’s treasurer, the minister GOTHABHAYA, who had become a rebel, marched from the north against the capital. Taking his water-strainer with him the king fled alone by the south gate, since he would not bring harm to others.

After his father’s death JETTHA TISSA became king. To punish the hostile ministers who would not go in procession with him, at the performing of the king’s funeral rites, the king himself proceeded forth, and placing his younger brother at the head and then the body following close behind, and then the ministers whilst he himself was at the end (of the procession), he, when his younger brother and the body were gone forth, had the gate closed immediately behind them, and he commanded that the treasonous ministers be slain and (their bodies) impaled on stakes round about his father’s pyre.

After king JETTHA TISSA’s death, his younger brother MAHASENA ruled twenty-seven years as king.

The minister named Meghavannabhaya, the friend of the king, who was busied with all his affairs, was wroth with him for destroying the Mahavihara; he became a rebel, and when he had gone to Malaya and had raised a great force, he pitched a camp by the Düratissaka-tank.

When the king heard that his friend was come thither, he marched forth to do battle with him, and he also pitched a camp.

The other had good drink and meat, that he had brought with him from Malaya and thinking: `I will not enjoy it without my friend the king,’ he took some, and he himself went forth alone by night, and coming to the king he told him this thing. When the king had eaten with him, in perfect trust, that which he had brought, he asked him: `Why hast thou become a rebel?’ `Because the Mahavihara has been destroyed by thee’ he answered. `I will make the vihara to be dwelt in yet again; forgive me my fault,’ thus spoke the king, and the other was reconciled with the king. Following his counsel the king returned to the capital. But Meghavannabhaya, who persuaded the king (that it was fitting to do this), did not go with the king that be might collect in the meantime the wherewithal to build.

137vSenpathi Maga

Migara senapati of Kassape I [Ch 39.6]

Uttara senpati of Moggallana I [ Ch 39 V 58]

Baddha senpati of Sena I [Ch 50 V 82]

Rakkhaka Ilanga  senpathi of Dappula IV [ Ch 53. v. 11]

Viduragga the Nayaka of Udaya IV[ Ch 53. v 46]

Sena – I  ruled 20 Years 833 – 853 AC Anuradhapuraya- Kutthaka Sepati of Sena II [ Ch 51. v. 88]

Kuttha Senevi: General Kuttha [ the Commander-in-Chief of the Army of King Sena I (853-887) (F,Z.V,24, A. 9-10)

Sena – II 35 Years 853 – 887 AC Anuradhapuraya. He assembled a large and well equipped army at Mahatitta  under Senpati Kutthaka[ Iripinayava Inscription] . Kutthaka laid waste countryside and after a short siege captured Madhura. He later defeated King Srimara and  brought back the treasures  of his uncle Sena I taken away by the Pandyans.

Udaya – II- 11 Years 887 – 898 AC Anuradhapuraya. Senpathi Kutta according to inscription held office for over 35 years and last appears in 3rd regnal year of King Uttiya II of 889.AD . He according to Mahavansa succeeded by Senpati Illanaga Sena.

Kashshapa- – IV 17 Years 898 – 915 AC Anuradhapuraya
Senpati Illanaga Sena is known as Sen-Senevirad in inscriptions: General Sena, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army of King Kassapa IV (898-914 AD)– (EZ.IL  5, A.7; 7, 8.1).

According to inscriptions Kassapa IV had a General called Vadura  and in his 7th regnal year he had a another Senpathi named Udaya.

Sirimal Ranawella comments on the rank structure is very important for the study of Military History is shown below is copied from his book Inscriptions of Ceylon Vol V part I.This need be studied in greater detail by analyst of Sri Lankan Military History


“Among those of the higher grade Officers of the State, the highest position after that of Mahapa was held by Senapati or Senevirad, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, which Office that an official could aspire to be held during this period. The name of the Senapati who had been the Commander-in-Chief of the Army during the reign of King Dappula iI is not mentioned in any of our records. They also do not reveal the name of the Commander-in- Chief of King Sena I; however, the Chronicle has revealed his Senapati’s name as Senapati Bhadda.  As evident from the Chronicle as well as from the Tamaravava pillar inscription, dated in the 31st  regnal year of King Sena III, that King’s Senevirad was a high dignitarynamed  Kuttha. According to the Chronicle, he was the Senapati who led the forces of Sena II in  his campaign against the Pandya country, which had taken place in the ninth regnal year (861  AD) of that King. Senevirad Kuttha figures also in several inscriptions of King Udaya II, indicating that he had continued in the office of Senpati even during the reign of that King, the immediate successor of King Sena II. Senapati Kuttha figures for the last time in the Nidinegama pillar inscription (No. 41.8) dated in the third regnal year (8S9 AD) of King Udaya II- It is evident from these that Senevirad Kuttha had been-holding that office for approximately 30 years.

As has been mentioned earlier, the immediate successor of Senpati Kuttha was a member of the royal family who, to the Chronicle, was known as llanga Sena; his name occurs as Sen Senevirad in the Kuktrurnahan-Damana Pillar inscription of King Kassapa IV, and in the Ayitigevava pillar Inscription of King Kassapa V. It appears that Senapati  Sena ho has held that office till the sixth year of King Kassapa IV, had either retired from that office or died in that year when a new Senapati named Vadura had been appointed by the King. This new Senapati  figures in the Minneriya Pillar Inscription, dated in the sixth regnal year of King Kassapa IV. and in two other inscriptions of that King, both dated in his 16th regnal year. It is evident from the Moragoda and the Hammillavatiiya Pillar Inscriptions (Nos.86.35 and 87.36), both dated in the l6th  regnal year of King Kassapa IV, that Senevirad Vadura had held that position till the end of that King’s reign. The Pillar inscriptions of King Kassapa V found at Kallam-pattu {101.11}, Ayitigeviiva (102.12) and Tunukai (103.13), all dated in the fifth regnal year of King Kassapa V, clearly indicate that Senevirad  Vadura had continued in that office even during the reign of King Kassapa V, the immediate successor of King Kassapa IV, at least till the fifth year of that King’s reign, for his name occurs in those three records. According to the Panduvasnuvara Pillar Inscription No. 5 (No. 109.19), dated in the seventh regnal year of King Kassapa V, a newly appointed Senevirad named Udaya had succeeded him in that office during the sixth or seventh year of that King’s reign, and this Senevirad appears to have held that position till the end of that King’s reign-

Another common occurrence seem  to have been the promotion of Commanders of the Bodyguard to the post of  Senpati. The above mentioned Senevirad Vadura who figures in the Kirigaileva pillar inscription (No. 40.7) of King Udaya II as Mekappar-vadarum Vadura,figures next in the above cited Minneriya Pillar Inscription dated in the sixth regnal  year of King  Kassapa IV as Senevirad Vadura;  that king’s Moragoda pillar inscription, dated in his 16th  regnal year has introduced him as Mekappar-vadarum Sineviraju Vardura. These two records suggest that Vadura, who had been a Mekappar-vadarum during the reign of King Udaya II had been appointed to his new office of Senapati during the reign of King Kassapa IV.

The names of several Commanders of the Bodyguard (Mekappar-vadarum) occur in our records. These Commanders of the Bodyguard and their subordinate officers designated Mekappar (Bodyguard) performed their duties directly under the Seneapati who was the Head of all the armed forces; they were, in addition to their normal duties, entrusted with partial responsibility for proclamation and enforcement of royal edicts. Some of the Commanders of Bodyguard who figure in our records also bore other titles, such as Pera-rad, Soliyarad,Varad and Deme Adhikara. Several pillar inscriptions of King Udaya II refer to a person named Mihindu who had borne the title Pera-rad. The pillar inscriptions of King Sena II found at Tamaravaiva and Kibissa have mentioned two Army Officers named Raksa and Podil who had borne the title of Soliyarad. A high dignitary named Mahasiva with the title of Varad prefixed to his name (Rayihi Varad) figures in the Kinihirikanda pillar inscription of King Udaya II; this same official figures again in the Kunci-kulama pillar inscription of King Kassapa IV as Mekappar-vadarum Riha Varad Mahasivu.Two high dignitaries named Helitta and Podil with the title of Demel Adhikari are mentioned in the Naccaduva and the Kibissa pillar inscriptions of King Sena II. Paranavitana  commenting on these titles remarks that it appears that Sinhalese kings of the ninth and tenth centuries conferred titles on their military chiefs, meaning ‘King of Cola,’ ‘King of Pandya’, etc., just as the Cola and Pandya kings of a somewhat later date conferred titles such as ‘Kalinga-rayar’ (King of Kalinga) and Ilatta-riayar (King of Illam ie. Ceylon)’ on their feudatories.

The armed forses which were under the Senevirsd are referred to in the Chronicle as comprising of the traditional fourfold divisions of elephant corps, cavalry, chariots, and nfantry, but elepharits, horses and chariots were rarelv made use of in actual warfare during the late Anuradhapura period. The bulk of the army comprised of foot soldiers, who were generally ref,erreC to as bhata or yodha in the Chronicle; the meaning of these two terms is similar to that of sennin, sevavan or sevayan and balatun, which occur in some of our records. The occurrence of the tem balatun invariably along with that of archers, dunuva (dunuva balatun) dunumandalan and yamuguru-gatuvan (bearers of Iron-clubs) suggests that they are soldiers. The soldiers who were referred to as balat, a termn which is equivalent to balattha in Pali, were employed as military or security officers. According to the Mahavamsa,King Subha (Chapter 59-verse 55) was a balattha of King Yasalalaka Tissa before he was appointed Dovrika (the officer of the Palace Gate) of that King.

The soldiers, it appears, had been armed with bow and arrows, swords, spears and iron clubs. Those who were armed with bows and Arrows are referred to in our records as Dunuva, and the military division to which they have been attached to as Dunu-mandulan, and those who bore spears and iron clubs as Kolpatun and Yamuguru-gatuvan respectively. Although the use of elephants, horses and chariots in actual warfare had been very rare. We notice that some Attini pillar inscriptions of this period have forbidden the entry of elephants, horses and chariots into the villages and lands, in respect of which immunities had been granted by the king. But it is not known whether those animals and chariots had been owned by private individuals or by the state .”


Kashshapa-  V 09 Years 915 – 924 AC Anuradhapuraya
Sak-Senevi: General Sakka; a son of King Kassapa V (914 -923 AD).and an Army Commander of his father’s Army (EZ.2,8,B. l4- 1 5)
Dappula – IV 07 Month 924 AC Anuradhapuraya Rakus Senevirad, Saagva; General Rakkha of Sang-vava, may be identified as Senapati Rakkhaka llanga, the Commander of the Army of King Dappula IV (924-935 AD) (IC.V, 11,23,8.12,D.7- 8)

Dappula – V 12 Years 924 – 935 AC Anuradhapuraya

Udaya – II 03 Years 935 – 938 AC Anuradhapuraya-HC Vol I Pt I pg 331-Udaya II sent his Senpathi Vajiragga to Ruhuna  with large army, and brought the Ruhuna under his control.

Sena – III 08 Years 938 – 946 AC Anuradhapuraya

Udaya – III 06 Years 946 – 952 AC Anuradhapuraya
Nimula, Senevi: General Nimula, An Army Commander and a Commander of the Bodyguards of King  Udaya IV(946-954 AD) (IC.V, rI, D. 49- 50)

Sena – IV 03 Years 952 – 955 AC Anuradhapuraya

Mihindu – IV 16 Years 955 – 972 AC Anuradhapuraya

a.Lokenavan, Bamba-Senevi: Brahma Senapati Lokena, An Army  Commander of and a Commander of the Bodyguards of King Mahinda IV  (lC.V, II, 64,C.24;66, A.38; 69. 33)


b.Sen Senevi: General Sena, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army

of King Mahinda  IV (956-972 AD) (IC.V, T1,2,69. 5)

Sena – V 10 Years 972 – 982 AC Anuradhapuraya

Mhv; Sena V was 12 years old ,While his father Senpathi Sena was away he appointed Udaya  as the commander, Sena revolted and the King had to flee. History of Ceylon  Vol I Pt I pg 341.

Mihindu – V 36 Years 982 – 1018 AC Anuradhapuraya.

The notes published by GS Ranawella on the rank structure during  late Anuradhapura period is below “The highest among the high dignitaries of the central government was the Senevirad  the

Commander-in- Chief of the Army. Our inscriptions reveal the names of four Senpatis,

Senevirad  Dandandyaka  Sangva RakusSenevirad SenSenevi Nimula and Sen Senevirad,who had been servlng under  the Kings Dappula IV, Sena III, Udaya IV and Mahinda IV

respectively.  Of these four senpatis  only Sangva Rakus, the Commander-in Chief of King Dappula IV, who figures in the Mahavansa as senpati  Ilanga Rakkhaka, and Sen senevirad,

the Commander-in Chief of King Mahinda IV are referred to in that chronicle; of the other two, the Commander-in -Chief of  King Sena III, the Senevirad Sen, figures in that King’s

Anuradhapura pillar Inscription (No.39.2) and the other, Senevi Nimula, Commander-in Chief of King Udaya IV, figures in that King’s Badulla pillar Inscription.

GS Ranawella who published the Inscriptions of Ceylon Volume V Part II has expressed his views on the rank structure of the Army during the late Anuradhapura period.

“In addition to his military duties, the Senpati  had to be in charge of Department of the Bodyguard, which was run by an army of Bodyguards styled Mekappar and under several of

their Commanders  styled Mekappar-vadarum. As has been pointed out by Paranavitana, the (Mekappar) officers who,  under the command of the Senpati had a share in the

Proclamation and enforcement of royal  edicts, granting immunities to land, in the ninth and tenth centuries. In these documents ,many of these  officers who set up the inscriptions receive

the title of Mey-kappar (body-guard), and came under the orders of the commander of the body-guar d (mey-kappar-vadarum). It is interesting to note that we come across a new title

styled Tala-arakka-vadarum (Commander of the Reservoir-guard), in several inscriptions of King Dappula IV, which is not found in any inscription of the ninth century. A Mekappar-

vadarun named Kitalna who figures in several inscriptions of that King had borne this Additional title, in addition to that of Mekappar-vadarun. This fact suggests that some

Commanders of the Body-guard had been assigned several other functions other than their normal duties.

Among the other functionaries of high standing figuring in our inscriptions were the officials styled Mahale, a title, which is the same as that of the Mahalekhaka mentioned in the

Chronicle. Paranavitana, commenting on this term states ‘mahdlekhaka (mahale or araksamana), ‘chief secretary’ was responsible for the administration of the state, just as the

senpati was for the military service. He was in charge of the Treasury and his officers dealt with economic matter’s . Our inscriptions do not permit us to arrive at such a conclusion.

Here he is of the view that there was only one Mahale at a time under each King, and that official had held two offices, that of the Chief Secretary and the Treasurer, at the same time,

and in addition that of Aralcsamana (the Chief Guardian). As we have pointed out above, the Treasurer was known as Bandara-pot or Bhandagarika during the latter part of the

Anuradhapura period, and he had nothing to do with the Secretariat. In the first place, Paranavitana’s assumption that there was only one Mahale at a time under a particular king is

highly untenable, for as we have pointed out in the historical introduction to Part I of this Volume, King Kassapa IV had ll Mahales and King Dappula IV about 7 or 8 Mahales.

Almost all the Mahales of King Dappula IV mentioned in his inscriptions have borne an additional title called Araksamana, Raksamana. As to the interpretation of this title, as we

have stated in the introduction to Part I of this Volume, the Chronicle has referred to several Mahales employed by the Kings Parakramabahu I of Mayarata and Manabharana of Ruhuna

who figure as Commanding  officers of their army during their war against each other. These Mahales have functioned as commanding officers of the army who have led troops in battle.

This fact indicates that the Mahale Araksamanas had to perform certain military duties for the King during the war times, in addition to their normal duties, such as maintaining the

office of Chief Scribe (Mahale) and providing protection to certain institutions or persons as Araksamana  with the assistance of their subordinate officers, the Kudasalas”

Vijayabahu – I 55 Years 1055 – 1110 AC Polonnaruwa

Budalna, Runu-danandyaka: Lord Budal, the Dandnayaka of Ruhuna (EZ.,V,I, B (i).2, B (ii) 6). Read Coins of Vijeyabahu I,here a  Panakaduwa copper plate where this General was given a written amnesty  even for treason . This is quite in line with the Buddhist principles where rulers, who were Ksatriya Warriors were expected by the people to not only defend the nation,to be future Bodhisatvas and acted as such.The legal enactment  is in Sinhala , a translation is given below-


Prosperity! while boundless transcendental virtues were overflowing from (their) multitudes, just as Prosperity was. His Majesty King Siri Sangabo Vijayabahu, descended from the lineage of King Okavas, who ,.made other ,,Kshatriya families in  the whole of India his vassals, the lord.-by right of descant, of the damsel the earth of the Island of Lanka the chief queen of Kshatriya nobles.

(His Majesty) on the seventh day of the second ,month of Vap of the Kati season, in the twenty-seventh year of the raising of the umbrella of dominion, when twenty-six years had passed while enjoying the sovereignty after having with his prowess, dispelled the darkness of the hordes of Tamil soldiers, and made the whole of the island of Lanka (subject to) one /umbrella.

His Majesty descended the lion throne in the noble city of  Anuradhapura and being seated (thereon), painting  (as it were) the inside of the brilliant white umbrella with the effulgence of the jewels in his diadem, in the presence of the royal assembly including his brothers-the heir – presumptive, the heir_ apparent and the yuvaraja – and others, he of lion powers  lifted up the yoke in both hands and showing sideways his lips from which flowed renowned  majesty and abundant glory, and which were , made beauteous by the  series of rays from his  teeth (spoke thus). . . –

At the-time we were  remaining Concealed in the mountainous wilderness, haring been deprived of our own kingdom in consequence of the calamity caused by our Chola Tamils, Lord BudaI of Sitnaru-bim, army commander of Ruhuna, with the aid  of his retinue, protected  the  entire royal family, including our father, His Majesty King Mugalan, ( the Great Lord)

He brought  up in our  tender age; he nurtured us with the sustenance of edible roots and green  herbs from the jungle; he  concealed us from the enemies who were prowling around seeking us  where ever we went, he engaged himself in battle n this place and that place and secured once again the territory of.Ruhuna, he took out of the mountainous wilderness and established us in our own kingdom, and this is as favour for the hardship he underwent on our behalf .


“ with regard to the sons and grandsons of this (Iord Budal), in a manner as it has come down from the lineage of Okavas , (they) were to commit an offence for which fines or imposts should be levied beyond a reprimand  administered by word of mouth after having settled the offence no fines  or  imposts should be levied ;  an offence committed by them should not be settled after having  put them in prison should there be any offence committed by them which cannot be expiated  otherwise than by giving up life, they should be pardoned up to three times, their share  of land holding  and estates  should not be confiscated, even if treason of what ever degree, be committed by them, no degradation  should be inflicted let this  regulation  be constituted into a charter to last as long as the royal lineage of Okavas of our own Kshatriya family and be granted’.

As it is thus be ordered by his majesty; the matter having been presented by Milingu Navini Tunda Detu of this self same race be it enacted as follows

“Where as Budul of Sitnaru, the commander of the military  of Ruhuna  increased his welfare of the world  by bringing up his majesty in his tender age protected the life  of the whole world by protecting the  entire family together  nurtured the whole world  by nurturing His Majesty  with the sustenance of edible roots and green  herbs from the jungle; proclaimed the bliss of the whole world by proclaiming  his Majesty in his own sovereignty as a favour of  the hardship to last as the royal lineage of the Okavas to exist in the Island of Lanka, concerning the sons and grandsons of this (Iord Budal), in a manner as it has come down in his lineage  beyond a reprimand  administered by word of mouth after having settled the offense no fines  or  imposts should be levied ;  an offense committed which  should not be settled by having  them put prison-even if an offense committed which cannot be  expiated  otherwise than by giving up life, they should be pardoned up to three times, their share  of land holding  and estates  should not be confiscated, even if treason of what ever degree, be committed by them, apart from banishing them them after having granted amnesty, and seen them ,no degradation  should be inflicted

To the effect that these rules have been promulgated to be effective after this date, to wit, the sevent day of the waning moon of the a Kati  of twenty seventh years .Atavra Liya Dev– The Keeper of the register.

Jayabahu – I 01 Year 1110 AC Polonnaruwa

Vickramabahu 21 Years 1110 – 1131 AC Polonnaruwa

Gajaba – II 22 Years 1131 – 1153 AC Polonnaruwa- His Senpathi was Namba[ Mava (cuva) 68-66.

Maha Parakramabahu – I 33 Years 1153 – 1186 AC Polonnaruwa.


(Arranged in the order they appear in the Culavamsa narrative).

1. MALAYARAJA or MALARAYARA leader of the Tamil troops, stationed in the Rattakara district (69.6). Captured Mallavalana on the Puttalam coast and then fought a naval action near the Pearl Banks(70.62-66). Left Muttakara[On Mannar coast opposite Pearl banks- Parakramabahu fought two naval action and brought the Uttra-ratta under control and he built a Fortress built at a place called Pilavasu] ,advanced to Anuradhapura to the relief of No 11 who was besieged there (Ch 70. V 155-156).
2. RAKKA, DANDADHINAYAKA of Gajabahu stationed in Yatthikanda[ Uda-Dumbara district] and Dumbara, suborned by Prakramabahu and entrusted with the subjugation of the Malayadesa (Ch 70.v 1-18), accomplishing which Prakramabahu appointed him Kesadhatu(Ch 70.v 19-29). Made Kesa-dhatunayaka and stationed in Merukandara[ A mountainous region South East of Sigiriya, served as a place of refuge] district (Ch70.v 279,283) Advanced thence to Polonnaru to release King Gajabahu who was imprisoned there by Manabharana (Ch 70.v 285-304), Defended Sarogama [ Vilgamuwa 15 miles North of Mahiyangana]and Talanigama[5 miles North of Mahiyangana ]fords on the river- (ch 72 1-5). Fought in defense of Parakrambahu’s, person (ch 72,v 106- 113). Made Lankadhikarin and posted to Mangalabegama[ many battle took place here between Parakramabau and Gajabahu- on the route between Nalanda and Polonnaru HQs, the Sudu-kanda Range of Hills] (ch 72.v 160). Evacuated it and re-posted there (ch 72.v 207).Decisively defeated Manabharana at Mihiranabibbila[ present Konduruva] and again at Rajatakedara in Alisara[ Alahara District , where Parakramabahu War headquarters was at Vikkamapura in the vicinity of Nuvaragalkandha 8 miles South South East of Sigiriya] (ch 72.v 232-270), Made Senapati, by which title and thereafter called. Charged with subduing Queen Sugala’s rebellion in Rohana, he marched from Polonnaru and fought his way to beyond Urani[ Close to Mahiyangana, Uraniya , may be Kasatapitiya where Dutugemunu made base camp prior to attack on Mahiyangama in first battle in with Elara] where he was held up by the rebel forces : he was then reinforced by Bhadarapottakin Bhuta (No. 36) and the combined forces advanced beyond Bibile into Lokagalla[Now called Loka up the valley of Loggal oya which flows from Passara to Mahavali Ganaga]thence through Madagama[ A ford across Gal Oya] to Udundora[ Present Galabadde at 26th Mile post on Monaragala-Potuvil Rd], fighting successfully actions on the on the way and forcing Queen Sugula to take refuge with the Tooth and Bowl Relics at Etimole [Etimole: 8 miles South East of Monaragala] [ ( Ch 74. V 40-83). He was now joined by No. 11 from Dighavapi, and the three forces fought several actions in the Monaragala area and captured Etimole and the Relics (Ch 74. V 99-126). But resistance broke out again in the Buttala region and the three commanders with the Relics were repeatedly attacked : at Sappanarukokilla[ in the vicinity of Buttala], the Senapati Rakkha died of dysentery and at the site of his cremation, Parakrambahu built a large Alms hall (ch 74. V 133-152).
2.A(unnamed2); younger brother of No. 2 and second-in-command of his troops (Ch 70. verse13-14).

3.LOKAJTVANA, assisted in the subjugation of Rerupallika district[ A district close to Madivaka, Uda-Dumbara] in Malaya (CH 70.V 24)-
4LANKADHlNAYKA or LANKANATHA or LANKADHINATHA RAKKHA, : assisted in capture of Rerupallika district (ch 70.v 24). Then captured occupied Janapada district [Present Makul -eba between Puvakgaha Ulpota and Konduruva on the Alahara canal- Codrington]and advanced into Alisara[ present Alahara] district(70 v 95-122). Advanced further a capture Polonnraru: captured Polonnaru and took Gajabahu captive (Ch 70 ,v 173-178 :232-250). Made-Lankadhikarin and stationed at Mangalabegama[ many battle took place here between Parakramabau and Gajabahu- on the route between Nalanda and Polonnaru HQs, the Sudukanda Range of Hills] (ch 70.v 283). Advanced hence to Polonnaru to release Gajabahu imprisoned there by Manabharana ( ch 70.v 297-310). Defended Nigundivaluka-ford[ A ford on Mahaveliganaga , East of River South of Dimbulagala] on the river (ch 72, v 37-38). Then assigned to defend Mayurapasana ford[ a stronghold on river Mahaveli], but through jealousy of No. 12( Senapati Deva), delayed to fortify himself was caught unprepared and killed in battle( Ch 72, v 70-92)
5.OTTURAMALLAKA. The chief of Dhanumandalaya[ Present Viyalune Korale, where Logal oys flows], suborned by Parakramabahu and assisted in subjugation of Kosavagga district( Chapter 70, V 17-18, 28-29).
6. SAMANTA-MALLAKA, Gajabahu’s chief of Kosavagga district [Next to Rerupallika district in Uda-Dumbara area], suborned BY Pakramabahu and assisted in subduing that District (Ch 70.v 26-29).
7 . KESADHATUNAYAKA TAMBA, captured Malavalliya[ Probably present Malayavelliya near Chilaw] in the west (Ch 70.v 66-67)
8. SILAGALLAKA, commanding in Moravapi[ frontier District with Dakkinadesha bounded by Kala-oya on the North] ( Ch 70, v 67)
9. RAKKHADIVANA, victorious in Kalavapi[Kala-Veva]district (Ch 70. v70).
10.MAYAGEHA, commanding in Nilagalla district[ West bank o Mahavali Ganaga, the place of assembly for attacks on the districts South of it and extended over the hilly portion of Laggala Pallesiya Pattu, the present Udispattu in pata Dumbara], routed attack made on him by Gajabahu’s General in Kalavapi district ( Ch70. V 77-86). Captured Alisara district (ch 70, v 162-172). Advanced towards Polonnaru, to Khandigama[ the pass over Sudkanda Range of Hills] (Ch 70, v 216-217). Made Lanka-adhikarin (ch 70. V 278). Defended Samirukkha [present Hambarava] ford on the river ( Ch72, v 9-10).
11.NAGARAGIRI or NAGARAGALLA MAHINDA. Head of the troop leaders, commanding on Puttalam coast : moved his forces by ship, conquered Uttara-ratthta established himself at the- Fortress Pilavasu[ Mannar District] (Ch 70. Verse 89-93). Advanced towards Anuradhapura, entered it and was besieged there : on being relieved by other troops sent to his aid, took station in Moravapi (ch 70. V 145-161, 199-200). In Parakramabahu’s camp at Nalanda , advanced towards Polonnaru ( Ch 70. V 200-221). Probably identical with Demala-Adhikara-Kahambalkulu-Mindalna (In Bentata Inscription -EZ.,IV, page 208) 11A. (Unnamed), brother of No. 11 and highest official on Parakramabahu’s personal staff ( Ch 70.v 199).
12. SENAPATI DEVA, sent to Giriba[ present Giribava, the General threw a long bridge across Kalaoya at this point passabl by files of Elephants,horses and Chariots, held together with iron bands and nails , made of beams of timber and 20 cubits or 30 feet broad- Perhaps the work of ancient Sinhala Sappers] to make a diversionary attack towards Anuradhapura, advanced and assisted in relief of No 11 who was besieged there (Ch 70. V 123-144, 153-161). Called from his station at Senagama[ here Gajabahu troops gave them battle and were defeated then on their approach to Anuradhapura they caprured Manyagama,Mita, Sukaragama, Terigama and Badaribhatikamana a few miles from City]]and sent to command at Polonnaru after the disorders which followed its capture by No. 4 (Ch 70. Verse 245-250). Unable to secure control, was himself shut up in Polonnaru: on being released by relieving forces, report to Kantalay (Ch 70.v 285-286). Advanced from there once again to Polonnaru to release Gajabahu, who was imprisoned. by Manabharana (Ch70. v300-304). Marched to Tannaru[ Possibly close to the River] where Parakramabahu’s defeated troops had taken refuge (Ch , 70. Verse 316-317).Defended Hedillakhandagama and Billagama ford on the river, ( Chap 72 Samirukkha[present Haambarava], verse 45-49). Defended Vallitittha ford (Ch 72. Verse 72-83).[ Thence went back to Billagama ford and fought a severe battle there, and when the river-line was abandoned[ These three Fords may be close to the Ford which Gamini defended defected,during Elara’s War . They are onthe Mahavali Ganga], retreated to Surulla[ present Hurulu-Veva] (Ch 72.Verse 121-128, 138-145).

13.JIVITAPOTTHAKIN SUKHA, advanced through Alisara district to Mangalabegama [between Nalanda and Polonnaru , the Sudukanda Range of Hills] (Chap 70.para 174-178) .
14.LANKADHINATHA or LANKANATHA KITTI (cf. No. 16), advanced from Nalanda towards Polonnaru (Chapter 70.v 205, 215-221). Made Lankadhikarin and posted to Kyanagama (Ch 70.v 283). Advanced thence to Polonnaru to relieve , Gajabahu imprisoned there by Manabharana (Ch 70. V 300–304). . Marched to Tannarru with No. I2 (Ch70. Verse 316-317). Defended Yakkhasukara ford of the river (Ch 72.Verse21-24). with No 12 Senapati Deva, fought severe action at Billagama ford: and when the river defence, were abandoned, retreated to Surulla ( Ch 72. V 121-128, 138-147). Sent to subjugate Dighavapi district during Queen Sugula’s rebellion together with No. 39[Kitti], and accomplished his task (Ch 74, v 89-98). He was then ordered to reinforce Nos. 2 and 36 before Etimole, and the three forces finally took Etimole and captured the relics ( chapter 74, verses 99-126). But resistance broke out again in the Buttala region ,and the three commanders with the Relics were repeatedly attacked : at this stage No. 2 Dandanayaka Rakkha died. Further fighting with the rebel ensued in the Buttala district and the King ordered the Relics to be sent to him, and, they were, accordingly, handed over to No. 10, who was in Dhaumandala, to be conveyed to Polonnaru ,( Ch 74. Verse 153-168). Nos. 44, 36 and 40 now met at Bokusala and resolved to stamp out the rebellion everywhere : they built a strong fortress at Balapsana, left it in charge of No.41, and proceed to subdue Dighavapi District once again : several actions were fought there and the rebels defeated (Ch 74 verses 169-180, Chap 75 Verses 1-18). Thereafter, Nos. 14, 36 and 40 joined the main forces of No. 42 at Kumbugama and concerted plan was drawn up to effect the capture of Queen Sugala and her remaining adherents- see under No. 42 for the rest of the campaign.
15.LANKAPURA, son of No. 14. Advanced towards Polonnaru, (Chap 70 verses 205, 215-221). Probably identical with the Senapati Lankapura, who commanded the Sinhalese forces a which invaded the Pandya kingdom : he is called Dandanayaka Lankapura in South Indian inscription. Defeated and decapitated by the Colas. His chief Commanders on this expedition were Nos. 50, 30, 48,49, 44 and 47 ( Chap 76 verses 76-334 ; Chap 77. Verses 1-103).
16. SAKHANAYAKA KITTI (cf. No. 14), Promoted to Lankadhikarin and posted to Kyanagama (Ch 70. Verses 278, 283).
17. DANDANAKA SANKHA or SANKHADHATU. brother of No. 18, made Kesadhatunayaka and stationed at Tinimakulla (Ch 70. Verses 279-280, 284). Assisted in the capture of Polonnaru and release of Gajabahu who was imprisoned there by Manabharana ( Chap70, verses 293-304). Defended Buru-datthali ford on the river (Ch 72. Vesre 36). After general retreat from the river, sent to hold Pillavitthi district (Ch 72. Verses 161-163). Sent against Manabharana who had come out of Polonnaru, to give battle ( Ch 72. Verse 222).Took part in final victorious battle (Ch 72 v 272-391). Served under No. 42 in the final stages of the Rohana campaign against Queen Sugala (Ch 75.V 181) .
18. DANDANAYAKA KITTI, brother of no. 17 Dandanayaka Sankha, made Nagaragalla and stationed at Tilimakulla (Ch 70. Verse 279-280, 284). Same service as his brother, No. 17, up to final stages of the Rohana campaign against Queen Sugala. Commander under No. 46 in the expedition to Burma and captured Kusumiya (Ch 76.verses 1-75) Called Kit Nuvaragal in the Devanagala inscription (EZ. III.pg 325).
19, .NAGARAGIRI NATHA, (cf, No. 26), advanced through Tannaru to Kotthasara district to capture Gajabahu (Ch 70. Verse 318- 326). Fought in defence of Parakramabahu’s person (Ch 72.verses 107-113).
20. JIVITAPOTTHAIN MANDIN (cf. No.40). advanced through Tannaru to Kotthasara district to capture Gajabahu (Ch 7.318-326). After general retreat from the river, sent to hold Pillavitthi district (Ch 72. Verse 161-163).
21. KESADHATU BUDDHA, defended Punagama ford on the river (Ch 72. Verse 6-8).
22. RAMA, of Nilagiri District defended Maharukkha ford on the River. ( Ch 72.V 11-13)
23. JITAGIRI SANTA, defended Viharavejjasala ford on the river ( Ch 72. Verse 25-26).
24. ADIPOTTHAKIN or BANDRAPOTTHAKIN KITTI, (Cf. No. 39),defended Assamandala ford on the river (Ch72. Verse 27-28). After general retreat from the river, stationed at Mangalabegma( Ch 72, verse 160).Thence moved to Kalavapi district : advanced towards Anuradhapura, was defeated and fell back in confusion to Kalavapi : but after being reinforced by No. 36, regained Maharattha district ( Ch 72. Verse 180-2040.Stationed at Kyanagama (Ch 72. V 207).
25.LANKAGIRI MAHI Defended Assamandala Ford on the river ( Ch 72 Verse 27-28)
26. SANKHANAKA NATHA (cf. No. 19), defended Sarogama ford in the river (Ch 72.3I-32). Under No. 42 and in company with No 30, captured Guralatthakalacha(Ch 75 Verse 75-77).
27.LANKAPURA KADAKUDA, defended Yacitagama ford on the river( Ch 72, verse 39-40), Sent against Manabharana who had come out of Polonnaru to give battle.( Ch 72, Verse 222). Took part in, final victorious battle ( Ch 72, verse 272-300). Served under No. 42 in the final stages of the Rohana campaign against Queen Sugala (Ch 75, verse 181).
28.SANKANAYAKA RAKKHA, defended Hillapattakhanda ford on the river (Ch 72. Verse 41).
29.KESADHATU DEVILA, stationed in Mahaniyyama district, advanced with others into Rohana, via Navayojana, Kalagiribhanda and Digha- lika-Mahakiretta (Ch 72. Verse 55-64),
30.KESADHATU LOKA, stationed in Pancayojana district, advanced with others ,into Rohana via Navayojana, Kalagiribhanda and Dighgalika-Mahaketta( ch 72 Verse 65-64). Under No 42 and together with No:26 captured Guralattakalancha( Ch 75-Verse 75-77); Held commad under No 15in the invasion of Pandya and described as one of the two 3 best commanders (Ch 76.verse 269, 324-328).
31.KAMMANATHA ARRAKA, Advanced with others into Rohana via Navayojana, Kalagiribhanda and Dighalika-Mahakhetta (Ch 72 verse 55-64).
32.KANCUKINAYAKA RAKKHA, advanced with others into Rohana via Navayojana, Kalagiribhanda and Dighgalika-Mahaketta( ch 72 Verse 55-64). Sent under No 42 but on a different route, to capture Mahanagahula; he first despatched No 43 to occupy Gintota, ind then he advanced down the coast, joined No.43,and proceeded victoriously,through Valigama, Matara, Devanagara, Dighali etc,to Malavaratthali, diverting a part of his forces to capture Ranmalakanda (ch 75 verse 19-68). No 42 coming down the hills of Moravak korale now captured Mahanagahula and No. 32 rejoined him there.
33. CHATTAGGAHAKA RAKKHA, subdued Anuradhapura area (Ch 7 Verses 65-69).
34.MAHALEKHA RAKKHA, after general retreat from the river, sent to Hold Pillavitthi District (Ch 72.verse 161-I63), From there he captured Kalavapi ( Ch 72 verse 171-173). Part of his forces then advanced towards. Anuradhapura, were defeated and had to retire in confusion to Kala-vapi : but reinforced by No. 36, he captured Maharattha district (Ch 72, verse 180-204). Next stationed at Kyanagama (Ch 72.Verse 207).
35.MARAGIRI NIGRODHA, after general retreat from the river; sent to Uddhavapi (Ch 72.verse I64). Thence he advanced and captured Tannaru (Ch 72.verses 174-175).
36. BHANDARAPOTHAKIN BHUTA, sent to Kalavapi district to reinforce Nos. 34 and 24, and in subsequent battles vanquished the enemy in Maharattha district (72.195104). Made Lankadhikarin and sent to reinforce No,2 who was held up in his advance to Rohana : the combined forces advanced through. Bibile, Lokagalla and Madagama to Udundora, fighting successful battles on the way, and forced Queen Sugala to take refuge with the Tooth and Bowl relics at Etimole(Ch 74,v 40-48). Nos. 2 and 36 were now reinforced by No. 14 from Dighavapi, and the three successfully captured Etimole and took possession of the relics( Ch 74, v 99-126) the three commanders were repeatedly attacked at this stage No. 2 died (Ch 74.v 133-152). Fighting with the rebels continued in the Buttala region and the King ordered the Relics to be sent to him : accordingly they were handed over to No. 40 who was in Dhanumandala ,to be sent to Polonnaru,( Ch 74.v 153-168). Nos. 14, 36 and 40 now met at Bokusala and resolved . to stamp out rebellion everywhere ; they ,built a strong-fortress at Balapasana, and, leaving it incharge of No.41, entered Dighavapi district, fought several actions there and defeated the rebels (Ch 74.v 169-180 ; Ch 75.v 1-18). Nos. 14, 36 and 40 then joined the main forces of No. 42 at Kumbugama and a concerted plan was drawn up to capture Queen Sugala ,and her remaining adherents ;see under No. 42 for the rest of the campaign.
37. KAMMANAYAKA or KAMMANATHA ANJANA, posted to Kyanagama (Ch 72. V 206). Received from No. 40 at Dhanumandala the relics captured from Queen Sugala and conveyed them to the King at Polonnaru (Ch 74. V 168).
38.LOKAGALLA, sent against Manabharana who had come out of Polonnaru to give battle (Ch 72:Verse222).
39. JIVITAPOTTHAKIN KITTI (cf, No. 24), sent under No. 14 to subdue Digavapi District and completed the task(Ch 74 verse 89-98.
40.LAKHADIKARIN MANJU (cf. No. 20),Sent subdued rebels in Sapatagama and occupied the area. (Ch 74. Verse 127-132). Thereafter he subdued Lokagalla and Dhanumandala and, at the latter place, received the captured Relics from Nos. l4 and 36 and entrusted them to No. 37 who conveyed them to Polonnaru (Ch 74. Verse 165-168). Nos. 40,l4 and 36 now met at Bokusala and resolved to stamp out rebellion everywhere : they built a strong fortress at Balapasana, left it in charge of No. 41, entered Dighavapi district again, fought several actions and defeated the rebels (Ch 74.V 169-180). No. 40 took station at Huyalagama and then the troops of Nos. 14, 36 and 40 joined the main force of No. 42 at Kumbugama and made plans to capture the fugitive Queen Sugala and her remaining followers : see under No. 42 for the remainder of the campaign.
41.LANKAPURA KITTI (may be the same as. No. 5) was left by Nos., 14, 36 and 40 in charge of the fortress of Balapasarra while they went on to subdue Dighavapi ( Ch 74. V 178-179)
42.DAMILADHIKARIN RAKKHA, assigned the task, together with No.32 but on different routes, of capturing Mahanagahula (Ch 75. V 19-20). He advanced to Denavaka, sent forward Nos. 26 and 30, and then, together with them, captured Guralatthakalancha but was forced back to Denavaka. Then he began to reduce resistance systematically around Kahavatta, Madampe, Rakvana, Burkanda and beyond into Moravak Korale and Obada as far as Mahasenagama, and then occupied Mahanagahula. Here he was joined by .No. 32. The Koggalla area was subdued and fighting proceeded further eastwards beyond Mahagama under detachments commanded by Nos. 44 and 45. As a stratagem, No. 42 now evacuated the low country and retired to Puvakdandava : the rebels in hiding thereupon came out into the open and No. 42 returned with his forces ,via Bovala, Urubokka and Migoda, effectively crushing them, and halted at Kumbugama. Here he was joined by Nos. 14, 36 and 40 and plans were made to destroy the remaining rebels and capture Queen Sugala. First, Dvadasasahassa was cleansed of rebels and firm control established from Mahanagahula. Then a vigorous-pursuit of the queen into Atthasahasm organized from Kumbugama and she and her followers were defeated at Vanagama, the queen being taken captive. Further sporadic resistance was quelled by Nos .17,18 and 27. Rohana was finally pacified, No. 36 was left behind as Governor, and the rest returned to Polonnaru with the captive queen and the spoils of war (ch 75. verses76-203).
43. KESADHATU DEVARAJA who was in Pancayojana was sent by No. 32 down the coast to occupy Gintota (Ch 75.v 21-24). There he was joined by No. 32 and went on with him to Malavaratthali (Ch 75. Verses 34-68).
44.LANKAPURA DEVA served under No. 42 in Hambantota district (ch 75.v130). He commanded a division under No. 15 in the invasion of Pandya a (Ch 76.v 250, 310-313, 325, 326).
45.MULAPOTKHAKRN MANA, served under No. 42 and woll a victory et Mahagama (Ch 75.138-140).
46.DAMATLADIKKARIN ADICCA, commanded the expedition to Burma under him was No. 18. (Ch 76.1.-75).
47.LANKAGIRI SORA, commander under No. 15, in the invasion of Pandya (Ch 76.250).
48. KESADATU KITTI. Commander under No. 15 in invasion of Pandya and described as one of the two best commanders (Ch 76.255,269).
49. SENAPTI JAGADVTJAYA, second-in-command under No. 15 in the invasion of Pandya : called dandanayaka Jayadratha or Jagatrana in Cola inscriptions : captured and decapitated by the Colas (Ch76.292, 333 ; Ch 77.3,15-1,03).
50. GOKANNA, commander under No. 15 in the invasion of Pandaya (Ch 7p. 253, 270, 324, 326).

Vijayabahu – II 01 Year 1186 – 1187 AC Polonnaruwa

Mihindu ( mahinda ) – IV 05 Days 117 AC Polonnaruwa

Nissankamalla 09 Years 1187 – 1196 AC Polonnaruwa

Lag-vijayasingu/ Lakvijayasingu Senavi : General Lakvijayasingha,  A Commander of King Nissankamalla{EZ.X, 17, B.l5;26, B. 2; 27 .l).

The Royal Council Chamber of King Nissanklamalla.[ 12 Cent AD

The seating plan is written of the Pillars of the Council Chamber. The seating is shown below. The highest position in given to the Commander of the Army.

The position of Senavi at the Kings Council Chamber.

Veerabahu – I- reigned only 01 Day 1196 AC Polonnaruwa

Vickramabahu – II 03 Month 1196 AC Polonnaruwa

Codaganga 09 Month 1196 – 1197 AC Polonnaruwa – Rakalna. Lak-vijaysingu-Senevi :General Lakvijayasingha Rakalna, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army of King

Codaganga (l196-1197 AD) (IC.VI, 89,C.3)

Leelawathi 03 Years ( 1st rulling time ) 1197 – 1200 AC

Leelawathi 01 Year ( 2nd rulling time ) 1210 AC Polonnaruwa.

The General who Commanded the four fold army to South India and who according to a large number of inscriptions who challenged  the armies of Cholians  and the Pandyan for single combats was Lag Vijayasingu Senevi Tavurunavan. The General whose dauntless warrior that transported the 26 feet long rock or the Galpota[ Stone Book] from Mihitale[ Sagiriya] to Pollonnaruwa a distace of about 50 miles. was  Adhikara Tota- [or Kota-]danavn Mand-navan  according to the post script written on the side of Gal-pota .

Inscriptions – The Transport of this large rock from Mihintale to Polonnaruva.

Dr Wickremasinghe- “ I  identify him with Lankadhi-kara Kotadanava Devalnavan mentioned in the inscription of Kalyanavati,the dowager queen of our king Nissanka-malla as the nephew or son-in-law (Bena) of Bandarapota Pircvatu-bim  Vijayanavaii, the minister who not only carefully guarded the treasures of Parakrama-Bahu I and other princes, but also placed Kalyanavati on the throne”.

Lak Vijaya Singukith Senevi – Commander-in-chief of Queen Leelawathie (1197-1200, 1208-1210 AD, 1221-1222 AD & General of Nissanka Malla (1187-1197); Also know as Lakshadipati for commanding an army of over 100,o 00, settled in Moraruwa.

During period of 1197-1    Many strong Generals played a prominent role in the country-. They were the power behind the throne and the rulers were not able  to assert their authority without incurring the wrath of these Generals.

Nissankamalle[1187-1196 AD]- Lak-Vijaya-Singu- Senevi –Tavurunavan who lead the  expedition to Pandyan country.Loyal to Kalinga Royal family. Protected the King ruvan- dambu. Quelled the revolt which broke out during Regign of Vijayabahu II.

Queen Lilavati[1197-1200AD]- Lak Vijeya  Singu- Kit- Senevi deposed of King Codaganga. General Kitti is praised by a verse in Sasadavata “ He was like a Lion deposing of a herd of Elephants[Cholas], three times. First the Colas had landed atMavatutota and marched to Anuradhapura, the second they landed at Salvattota and marched up to Sripura

King Sahasamalle[1200-1202 AD], Queen Kalyanavati[1202-1208 AD], King Dharmasoka1208-1209 AD]- Were raised to the throne by Lak Vijaya Singu- Senevi- Abonavan. After elevating them to the throne he deposed of Kalyanavati and Sahasamalle.

King Sahasamalle[1200-1202 AD]- An Inscription of this King at Kevulgama[ EZ III No23 p 234-5] grants a piesce of land to his supporter  Gulpiti But for” for the wounds which he got in loyalty to the King from weapons( of the kings enemies)].

Queen Kalayanavati Ruvanveli Dagabo a General by the name of Bhandarapota Pirivatubin Vijaya-navan. During her 8th year of reign a Tamil force landed in Ceylon and destroyed it from the Minipe Inscription of General Bhama. It also mentions that the General Abonavan [Ayasmanta] who raised her to the Throne is the same Amati Ati killed during this invasion.

King Dharmasoka[1208-1209 AD]- raised to the throne by Ayasmanta was a five month old infant and the General ruled in his name.Both were slain by Anikanga[17 days]. Who in turn was killed  by his General Camunakka. Who placed  Queen Laliavati1209 AD] on the throne. Dr.Paranavitane is of opinion that this incident is the same mentioned in Minipe Inscription.

Queen Lilavati[ 1210 AD]. General Prakrama a member that belong to Kallunaru family with historical background to a famous family during King Vijeyabahu I [ Abangamuva Rock Inscription], placed Queen Lilavati for the third time. She ruled for 7 months.

Parakramapandu 03 Years 1212 – 1215 AC Polonnaruwa

Kalinga- Maga 21 Years 1215 – 1236 AC Polonnaruwa

The Foundation of the Dambadeniya Kingdom and the Reign of VijaYabahu III

The Culavmsa preserves scanty but valuable information on some of the local rulers who exercised authority in limited areas in Mayarattha and Rohana while Magha held sway in Rajarattha. In the words of the chronicler, during this period of alien rule several  virtuous people founded on diverse of the most inaccessible mountains a charming town or village and dwelling here and there Protected the laity and the order so that they were in peace. Similarly, the Hatthavangallaviharavamsa, states that, being oppressed by  enemy forces, the ministers and such other important Personages and the people left their villages and townships in thousands  in search of places of protection the rocky  mountains (Giri-dugga) and forest strongholds (Vana-dugga),

In this atmosphere of fear and uncertainty, a general (Senapati) named Subha  established  himself on  the ” summit of the Subha-pabbata and ‘founded a town as Vessavana the town of Alakamanda and  dwelling there and fending off the -Kerala devils, he protected the (surrounding) country and  the Order. This  is the first time the Pali chronicle refers to the subha-pabbata, which later came to be even more strongly fortified and played an important part in the military strategy employed by the rulers of this period in dealing  with foreign invasions. Of Senapati  Subha  nothing more is known from the Culavamsa any other source.  Perhaps he was a general  who was forced to flee from Rajarattha on account of the pressure of Magha’s forces.

Though there is no way of determining the precise area of his authority it does not seem to have extended much beyond the region surrounding Yapahuva near Maho in the Kurunagala District. Any rate, he does not appear. to have succeeded in bringing under his rule the whole or even a large part of the province of Mayarattha.

In Rohana a chieftain of this type, named Bhuvanekabahu  established himself on the rock Govindamala or Govindisela, identified with the place -now known as Govindahela or Westminster Abbey, hard to reach by the rebels Like Yapahu Govindahera is a prominent rock rising to a considerable elevation, located 20 miles to the west of Tirukkovil in the Mahavadirata Kora1e.  such a rock, even without additional fortification, would have offered the kind of protection which the rulers of this period sought. Nothing more is known of Bhuvanekabahu or the family to which he belonged, but the title of adipada referred by Culavamsa.

Culavamsa mentions one more ruler, viz,, Commander (camupati) Sankha, who set  himself up ‘on the lofty mountain Gangadoni’ in the district of Manimekhala. He gave as little heed to the infamous army of the Ruler Magha though it was but two yojnanas away as to a blade of grass and protected without fear that district and the Oder

Vijayabahi – III 04 Years 1220- 1224 AC Dambadeniya

Parakramabahu – II 35 Years 1234 -1269 AC Dambadeniya
Mita, Seneradu :

General Mitta, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army of King Parakramabahu II (1236-1270AD)– (IC-VII, 24,F.2; GP. p.177, F.2)

Vijayabahu – IV 03 Years 1267 – 1270 Ac Dambadeniya
Mit-.Seneviradun: General Mitta, the Commander-in Chief of the army of King Viayabahu IV {1271-1272 AD) of the DambadeniyaKingdom(IC.VII, 24,F.2; GP.p.177, F.2). The King is killed by Senpathi Mitta[ Mhv Ch 90]

Buvanekabahu – I 12 Years 1270 -1283 AC , Dambadeniya & Yapahuwa. brother of Vijreyaba IV escapes an assasination attempt by the 10 Wicked and Brutal Munasiha brothers, who sided with Senpathi Mitta[ Chapter 90  first page].

Rajaputra Thakura Artha Deva Adittya Senevi – Sub King/General/Adigar of Buvanekabahu I of Dambadeniya/Yapahuwa (1270 -1283) and  Parakramabahu III (1287 – 1293) Polonnaruwa

Senpathi Mitta  rules for few days is assasinated by an Ariyan warriors leader named Thakuraka,[ well known  Rajput title- PHDH de Silva] who had served King Vijeyaba IV.  Few Munasiha brother escape , two of them to Udugampola Kingdom.

Parakramabahu – III 06 Years 1287 – 1293 AC Polonnaruwa

Buwanekabahu – II 09 Years 1293 – 1302 AC Kurunegala

Panditha Parakramabahu – IV 24 Years 1302 – 1326 AC

Buwanekabahu – III Kurunegala

Vijayabahu – V Kurunegala

Buvanekabahu – IV 12 Years 1341 – 1353 AC =- Gampola

Parakramabahu – V 15 Years 1344 – 135 Dedigama Gampola

Vickramabahu – III 17 Years 1357 – 1374 AC Gampola

Buvanekabahu – V 37 Years 1372 – 1408 AC Gampola

Veerabahu – II 05 Years 1392 – 1397 AC Raigama

Veeraalakeshvara 12 Years 1397 – 1410 AC Raigama

Parakramabahu – VI 55 Years 1412 – 1467 AC Kotte

Jayabahu – II 05 Years 1467 – 1472 AC Kotte

Buvanekabahu – VI 09 Years 1472 – 1480 AC Kotte

Parakramabahu – VII 04 Years 1480 – 1484 AC Kotte

Veeraparakramabahu – VIII 24 Years 1484- 1508 AC Kotte

Darma Parakramabahu – IX 20 Years 1508 – 1528 AC Kotte & Kelaniya

Vijayabahu – VII 12 Years 1510 – 1522 AC Kotte.

The Portuguese sets up a stockade in Colombo. De Brito the Portuguese Commander makes a surprise attack with 150 soldiers and loots Colombo. The Sinhalese from Kotte surrounds the fort and slowly advance and faces Cannon fire  for the first time.They make make entrchments and step by step moves forward  and gets closer to the stockade. Earth works were thrown up and on these were mounted several hundred guns or machine that fire stones and darts[ ten palms in length with feathers made of wild boar hides]. The distance fired was 200 paces Others threw fire bombs that set fire to thatched houses inside the stockade. Night attacks were made by the Portuguese to destroy two bastian that were made of Coconut trees to observe and direct fire at the stockade .

The Sinhalese kept up the presure for six month and was on verge of victory when the Portuguese  ships arrived from Goa. The fire from ships  was directed from the rear while those in the stockade attacked  and the Sinhalese army had to with draw.

A Sinhala warrior named Proytela Rala volunteered to recapture the stockade with 2000 foot soldiers, 150 cavalry and 25 war elephants. The Portuguese turned to flee, rallied when the fire of muskets hurt the Elephants who  ran amok, trampling their own men,  the Portuguese pursed them but the Sinhalese fought with great gallantry under the eyes of their King, despite many casualties.

Buwanekabahu- – VII 30 Years- 1522 – 1551 AC Kotte

Sapumal (Sembap-Perumal) Kumara, general of Parakramabahu VI’s 2nd Jaffna campaign (he becomes Prince of  Jaffna and then King Buvenekabahu VI)

Kouravara Aditya Arasa Nilayitta Ile Nága (appointed in A.D. 1374 by Vira / Vijey Bahu of Kotte, brother of regent Bhuwaneka Báhu V) , the engraved sword at Colombo Museum is shown below

Engraved Sword presented by Sirisangabo Sri ParakramaMaha Raja- 1416 AD- De Silva & Wickremasinghe

Kuruvira Arasa Nilayitta Maha Naga appointed A.D. 1416- by  (Sri Sangabo Parakrama Bahu VI)the sword of this last General who helped unite Sri Lanka under one local monarch is in the Colombo  Museum.

Sword of appointment as Sub-Kings

Portuguese Period.

Weediye Bandara – Sub King/General of Parakrama Bahu VI

Mayadunna 60 Years 1521 – 1581 AC Seethawaka

Vikramasinha Mudaliar– General of King Mayadunna– He was killed by King Rajasinghe I

The property of Mr DJLW Jayasekera, Gonawala , Kelaniya a decendent of Senpathi Wickremasinghe.


Extract taken by PE Peries from his copy of the Rajawaliya and Published in Book-Ceylon the Portuguese Era

Wckremasinghe Mudiyanse was a Native of Udugamella ,Siyane korale was  the bravest of King Mayadunna’s Generals.

Diyawalakanda  Pasyadun Korale

His first battle was along with Tikiri Rajjuruva Bandra the 13 years old son of Mayadunna. In  fought against Veediya Bandara [ who was married to a daughter of King Mayadunna ]and brought back the head of Nayide o f Samarakoon Mudliyar-to Sitawaka.

Battle of  Molkawa -Kula ganga.

Timbiripola Banadara[ second Son of  Mayadunna], Tikiri Bandara[ youngest son] and Wickremasinghe Mudali combined forces moved to kaluganga  , and joined by 300 Portuguese and attacked Molkawa Fortifications strongly held by  Prince Widiya Bandara. Pelen Ganga was crossed 3 day spent on erecting entrenchments, Weediya Bandara [Regent of Kotte –father of King Daramapala] led his troops out into the open and gave battle, The challenge was accepted and a severe fight ensured, Artillery and matchlock being used by both sides. The Portuguese assistance Weediya Bandaras troops was pushed back, The Sister of TB married to Weediya Bandara  is sent back to Sitawaka on elephant back and the retreat of Weediya Bandara  followed to Devundara to hill country through Idalgasinna.

Attapitiya Ferry

Weediya Bandara  joins up with King Karaliadde of Kandy and rebuilds an army. Decend from the hill country Alpitiya road[ Alpiti Kanda an ancient Kadawata of Ambuluwa in a gap of hill to the West of Gampola. And arrives in Galboda Korale. Sitwaka army under Tikiri Bandara and Wickremasinha Mudali proceeds via katugaha and occupies Kariyagama. Weediya Bandara  despatches  a force to seize Attapitiya Ferry but fails and retires to Hill country by same route he came down.


Weediya Bandara  is dismissed by Karaliyyade on a threat by Mayadunna or further hostilities. Weediya Bandara  goes to 7 Korales and disposes of Edirimanne Surya Raja and becomes the ruler. Portuguese troop reinforces Weediya Bandara    Tibiripola Bandara occupies Menikadawara., while Wickremasinghe Mudali pushed on the front . The armies ot Weediya Bandara and Wickremasingeh Mudali meet at Elletota, may Portuguese soldiers are killed  and the gains by Wickremasinghe Mudali . The sitawaka musketeers gain advantage and succeed in capturing a Tusked elephants and both forces retire to camps.

Weediya Bandara  goes to Jaffna via Puttlam and in Jaffna he is Killed after a desperate battle with Tamils soldiers though out numbered.

Mulleriya Battle.

The Portuguese with a large army advances to attack Sitawaka and had come to Maetakanda, they had halted at Hevagama[ Panagoda Army Camp is in Hwegam Korale]. Wickremasinghe Mudali  advances to give battle in the village of Mulleriyawa. A fierce battle where Wickrnmasighe Mudali is wounded and many of soldiers are killed. TB now known as Rajasinha rallies his forces and defeats the Portuguese at Mullariyawa. With the help of the Archchies of Atutugiri Korale and Hewagam Korale and koratota. Targe Bearer trained in fencing schools in sent in by Raja Sinha  to cut down the enemy. Raja sinha him self mounted on a horse The targe bearers ,elephants and horse  mingled together and prevented the Portuguese  for reloading their muskets , many casualties on both sides. An attack from the front and Jayasundara and Vijasundara elephant divisions  join in and attack from the rear. The Portuguese are routed and all who fought are rewarded by land in Hewagam Korale, Pangoda etc.

The Portuguese plans to attack Rajasinha who is camped at Rakgahawatte , by advancing on either banks of Kelani river and bringing a Cannon Mounted on a castle built on two Padda-boats. Ragasinha is  ready for hem, he orders a bronze cannon be cast and mounted on the right bank and charged with ball, and as the floating Castle come into view Rajasinha himself aimed and fired the gun and with such good fortune that it raked the towing boat and killed 20 sailors. The Portuguese become desperate and hastily give up and retire, Wickremasingha Mudali in pursuit  drive them back on the Siyane Korale side of the river up to Nagalagama.

The Portuguese is policy of destruction and killing raids from Colombo to Negumbo and to the south. Mudiliyar Wickremasinha is sentto subdue the Portuguese and  seize their ships etc in small port around Wattala by King Mayadunne.

SEIGE OF COLOMBO-  King Rajasinha.

Rajasinha Atempt to capture Colombo. WM is sent in advance to Weraluvetota and erects a stockade at lower Boralugoda. Senerat Mudali encamped on plains of Botulagoda, the city is besieged, While camping there the Portuguece make surprise attack of Wickremasinha Mudali  quarters which was not heavily guarded, using boats to Mutuwal and advancing along the Kelani river. They are detected in time and Wickremasinghe  escapes though his sword and a lot of arms and ammunition is lost.

A dispute between Wickremasinghe Mudali and Senerat Mudali  . Senerat Mudali open correspondence with King Daramapala who is with the Portuguese , falsely accuses Wickremasingeh Mudali  of corresponding  with the Portuguese . Rajasinha  whose HQ is at Kurakakan watte , close to Weralutota ,calls for Wickremasinghe Mudali and send him back  to Sitawaka.

A threat from Hill country and Rajasinsha returns to Sitawaka. Wickremasingeh Mudali has an attack of dysentery , a leech was directed to give him medicine mixed with poison, where by Wickremasinha  at an age of about 75 years dies.

PE Peries writes

Wickremasinhe the great General who taught his Royal master the art of war , had failed to give satisfaction  in his last attempt, and so severe  was the censure  passed on him that he sickened and died”.

Tikiri Bandar/Bandara -later Rajasinha I, appointment General by father King Mayadune

Rajasinghe – I 39 years 1554 – 1593 AC Seethawaka.Vimala Darmasuraya(Snr) – General of Rajasingha I conquest of Kandy

Aritta Kivendu Perumal (Mannamperuma Mohottala)

Indian Vaduga Maha Adigar/Treasurer/General of Sitawala Rajasingha (the Hinhu)

Don John (Kunapu Pandar/Bandara) appointed General of Don Philip (Yamasinha Pandar/Bandara) & Lascarins conquers Kandy with the Portuguese (later rules as Vimala Darmasurya I)

Dharmapala 46 Years 1551 – 1597 AD-Kotte-Don Samarakone Fernando –  General of King Don Juan Dharmapala

Don Philip 01 Year 1591 AC Mahanuwara

Wimaladarmasuriya – I 13 years Mahanuwara-Edirile Rala(Domincus Corea); General of King Don Juan Dharmapala, then  appointed sub king of Kotte by Don John Vimala Dharmasurya (Kunappu Bandara/Pandar.

The King standing on a Asana to left his ministers to right Military Comd holding various type of weapons.

Manual Dias appointed by Vimala Dharmasurya.- Mr Guruge


Senarath 31 Years [1604 -1635 AD]-Mahanuwara (Senkadagala )

Boschhouder (a Hollander from the Dutch East India Co.) appointed sub king of Migona, Anuradhapura, Baticaloa, Chief of defence staff and Lord Admiral by King Senarat Kuruwita Rala (sub king of Uva / Antonio Baretto) appointed General & Admiral by King Senarat(the unique distinction of beating a colonial navy with the successful naval raid and capture of 6 ships).

For complete description read Sinhala Navy- Capt Sally De Silva

Rajasinghe – II 52 Years 1635 – 1687 AC Senkadagala

Wimaladarmasuriya – II 20 Years 1687 – 1707 AC
Mahanuwara ( Senkadagala )

Narendrasinghe 32 Years 1707 – 1739 AC Mahanuwara ( Senkadagala )

Vijaya Rajasinghe 08 Years 1739 – 1747 AC Mahanuwara ( Senkadagala )

Keerthi Sri Rajasinghe 35 years 1747 – 1782 AC Mahanuwara ( Senkadagala )

Radhirajasinghe 16 Years 1782 – 1798 AC Mahanuwara ( Senkadagala )

Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe 17 Years 1798 – 1815AC Mahanuwara ( Senkadagala )

Kapetipolla (General of Lascarins troops of the English that changed sides 1818 Uva rebellion)

Ahelapola Adigars Sword


Simon Corea – General of Lascarins

Don Cosmo (General of Lascarins troops of the Portugese that changed sides in the battle of Randeniwalla)

Robert Brownrigg – Governor General of to annex Kandy under United British Ceylon.

A Sinhala regiment was raised by the British, his was commanded by Lt Col Johnston Amerasekara of Miirigama. A Bugle made of Buffalo Horn with a brass ring engraved” Sinhala Regiment 1815“, gifted to me by WO I Wijeratne- SLEME of Kandy. Lt Col Amerasekera is g.g.g.. father of  Late General Ranjan Wijeratne who was killed in a LTTE explosion.

Puran Appu (Weerahanedi Francesco Fernando) hero & General of the 1848 rebellion the ordinary sons of the Island against the world’s mightiest ever empire at the height of it’s power

World War I – War Hero’s from Ceylon

Cocos Island Mutiny-

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia- If any reader knows more about this brave soldier please send them to sirimuna39@gmail.com

Gratien Fernando
Born 1915
Colombo, Ceylon
Died 5 August 1942
Welikada Prison, Colombo, Ceylon
Allegiance Sri LankaCeylon
Service/branch Ceylon Defence Force
Rank Bombardier
Unit Ceylon Garrison Artillery
Battles/wars World War II

Bombardier Gratien Fernando CGA (1915 – 5 August 1942) was the leader of the Cocos Islands Mutiny, an agitator for the freedom of Sri Lanka from the British.

Wathumullage Gratien Hubert Fernando was born to Sinhalese Buddhist parents. His father was a superintendent at the Ceylon Telegraph Office.

He went to school at <a title=”St<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
Thomas’ College” href=”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Thomas%27_College&#8221; target=”_blank”>St Thomas’ College, Mt Lavinia. He was later converted to Roman Catholicism. He was impressed by the program of the Lanka Sama Samaja Party and by the anti-imperialist literature which it circulated. He was very much an anti-racist in his attitude and at the beginning of the Second World War joined the Ceylon Garrison Artillery in order to fight fascism. He was shipped off with his unit first to the Seychelles and later to Horsburgh Island in the Cocos Islands.[citation needed]

Here, he argued with his officers and agitated for action among his colleagues: his agenda was the opening of the battle against British colonialism. He finally persuaded a core group to rebel, seize the island and signal the Japanese that they had done so. On the night of 8/9 May, led by Fernando, men of the unit mutinied. However, their plan failed and the rebellion was suppressed the next day. The leaders of the mutiny were court-martialed and condemned within a week.

Fernando’s father petitioned the army authorities to commute the death penalty and asked Sir Oliver Ernest Goonetilleke, the Civil Defence Commissioner, to intercede with Admiral Sir Geoffrey Layton, the British Commander of Ceylon. However, when Layton interviewed Fernando, he was adamant that he did not wish to be reprieved or pardoned. He told his family ‘I’ll never ask a pardon from the British: that would disgrace the cause. Many years hence the World may hear my story’.

He was executed on 4 August 1942 at Welikada Prison, Ceylon, and two other mutineers shortly thereafter. They were the only British Commonwealth troops to be executed for mutiny during the Second World War. Fernando showed defiance to the end, his last words being ‘Loyalty to a country under the heel of a white man is disloyalty’. He was buried at the Borella cemetery in an unmarked grave.

For more options, visit this group at

World War II.For details click on to wikipedia site below


I had an email about the above . for the readers from a different point of view.

Dear Sir,
My uncle late Alfred Benjamin Edema of Ceylon Garrison Artillery was also subjected to harassment due to Gratien de Silva. Though LSSP and the leftists were trying to take him to the leftist group, my uncle told me it was a diabolical lie. He was not a hero but he masterminded the mutiny by killing another Sri Lankan who was buried in the Cocos. How can he termed as a hero when he killed a sentry who was guarding him.
My uncle was supposed to be in that duty turn but the soldier who was shot by Gratien had asked for a duty roster change.
The main reason was the Racial harassment of the detachment commander, a British national. He had mercilessly harassed the Ceylonese troops, which included Sinhalese, Burghers and Tamils.
They had planned to kill the Captain and relieve the troops and had no intention to surrender to the Japanese according to my uncle.
My uncle was taken into custody due to a,round in the chamber (not fired) and change of roster. He was taken into custody and brought to Colombo naked. He was not punished and he was the only soldier who was found not guilty.Later he joined the Royal Air Force and retired as a Sergeant. His daughter Gwen has all the photographs of him but doesnot want to give out.
There were Ceylon Light Infantry troops was also in the Cocos at that time. The British who were so scared of Indians never mention about the Indian Mutiny in the Christmas island where Indians killed all the British officers and soldiers and surrendered to Japanese who in turn killed all the Indians.
 Best regards,
Anton Edema

LOrd Mountbattern

Five General of the Sri Lankan Army.

Army Comds

General Richard Udugama

Not long before the  Kohima battle began our former Army Commander the late Major general Richard Udugama, then a young captain, was serving with British-Indian 14th Army in the Burma Campaign. During this time he served with the 7/2nd Punjab Regiment in the Arakan area, on the eastern side of Mayu Range. At this point he was captured by the Japanese and held in a POW camp until the end of the war in 1945. For his war service he was awarded the Burma Star, the Defence Medal and the War Medal 1939–1945.

General Lional Ballegallel

General Shantha Kottegoda

General Sarath Fonseka



  1. We certainly have to include;

    Ravana – Emperor (commander-in -chief) of pre Sinhala Lanka

    Rama & Hanuman – conquest of Lanka (Hanuman is reputed to be the brain-child of the flame brigade)

    Prince Vijaya – conquest of Yaksha kingdom, Lanka

    Lak Vijaya Singukith Senevi – Commander-in-chief of Queen Leelawathie (1197-1200, 1208-1210 AD, 1221-1222 AD).& General Of Nissanka Malla (1187-1197); Also know as Lakshadipati for commanding an army of over 100 00, settled in Moraruwa.

    Sapumal (Sembap-Perumal) Kumara, general of Parakramabahu VI’s 2nd Jaffna campaign
    (he becomes prince of Jaffna and then King Buvenekabahu VI)

    Kouravara Aditya Arasa Nilayitta Ile Nága (appointed in A.D. 1374 by Vira/Vijey Bahu of Kotte, brother of regent Bhuwaneka Báhu V)

    Kuruvira Arasa Nilayitta Maha Naga (appointed A.D. 1416- by Sri Sangabo Parakrama Bahu VI) the sword of this last general who helped unite SL under one local monarch is in the Colombo museum.


    Weediye Bandara – Sub King/General of Parakrama Bahu VI

    Vikramasinha Mudaliar(general of Mayaduna)

    Tikiri Pandar/Bandara (later Rajasinha I, appointment general by father Mayadune)

    Vimala Darmasura (Snr) – general of Rajasingha I conquest of Kandy

    Aritta Kivendu Perumal (Mannamperuma Mohottala)
    Indian Vaduga Maha Adigar/Treasurer/General of Sitawala Rajasingha (the Hinhu)

    Don John (Kunapu Pandar/Bandara) appointed General of Don Philip (Yamasinha Pandar/Bandara) & Lascarins conquers Kandy with the Portuguese (later rules as Vimala Darmasurya I)

    Edirile Rala (Domincus Corea); General of King Don Juan Dharmapala, then appointed sub king of Kotte by Don John Vimala Dharmasurya (Kunappu Bandara/Pandar)

    Don Samarakone Fernando – General of King Don Juan Dharmapala

    Manuel Dias – Maha Adigar & General of King Senarat

    Simon Corea – General of Lascarins

    Boschhouder (a Hollander from the Dutch East India Co.) appointed sub king of Migona, Anuradhapura, Baticloa, Chief of defence staff and Lord Admiral by King Senarat

    Kuruwita Rala (sub king of Uva / Antonio Baretto) appointed General & Admiral by King Senarat
    (the unique distinction of beating a colonial navy with the successful naval raid and capture of 6 ships)

    Don Cosmo (general of Lascarins troops of the Portugese that changed sides in the battle of Randeniwalla)


    Robert Brownrigg – Governor General of to annex Kandy under United British Ceylon

    Kapetipolla (general of Lascarins troops of the English that changed sides 1818 Uva rebellion)

    Puran Appu (Weerahanedi Francesco Fernando) hero & general of the 1848 rebellion the ordinary sons of the Island against the world’s mightiest ever empire at the height of it’s power.

  2. Dear sir,
    It has been a pleasure to read your many texts.

    As you know I foray in this realm through a different medium.

    I hope there will be an opportunity to speak to you some time and I am leaving my contact and hope you would reply.

    Best regards and all strength to you in your great endeavor.

    Prasanna Weerakkody

    • Dear Mr Weerakkody.
      It is a surprise to hear from you.I have seen your fantastic painting depicting soldier, weapons ,War-horses Elephantsetc, In fact I sent you an e-mail congratulating you for your research and details and the pain you have gone into,to an address found in Explore Sri Lanka. I have visited you web site too. I have only collected facts written by others and published this so that the experts can do much better.There is so much to copy and publish, I am now working on Awards and Grants of Villages etc given to earlier Army Comds,any way my first love is coins.

  3. Hi!
    Just correcting some small typing errors, etc. Need not publish all this, just make the adjustments, if you can.

    Lankapura Dandanatha Senavi & Jagath Vijaya Senavi – Parakramabahu I (1153 – 1186)
    (Campaigned in India to assist the regent’s cousin Parakrama Pandya & Vira Pandya against Kulasekara Pandya)

    Lak Vijaya Singukith Senevi – commanding an army of over 100 000 (not 10 000)…

    Rajaputra Thakura Artha Deva Adittya Senevi – Sub King/General/Adigar Buvanekabahu I of Dambadeniya/Yapahuwa (1270 -1283) & Parakramabahu III (1287 – 1293) Polonnaruwa

    Manual Dias appointed by Koon-Appu/Don John/Vimala Dharmasurya (not Senarat)

    Rajasinghe I (the Hindu)

    He was a passionate Hindu (not too fond of Buddhists) and Dharmasurya Snr. was killed for not carrying out orders to destroy temples.

    The likely hood of the Island becoming Hindu or Muslim was very strong at that time. Not just because of Hindu Rajasinghe i, or Mayadune’s collaboration with Muslim forces, but the Muslims (Moughals in particular) had only parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu to conquer and all other Buddhist and Hindu islands of south-east Asia had become Muslim.

    Also, we would not have been able to resist the many Hindu royals, forces and refugees advancing south to the last landmass of the subcontinent. Additionally our royalty was heavily Pandyanized (pandar/bandar) through intermarriage and were largely ‘Ceremonial-Buddhists’.

    The European presence, Portuguese in particular helped to change the balance of power and stall these possibilities in the entire region. Hence another reason for our royalty to actually like the Portuguese presence and the adoption of new customs, religious conversions and intermarriage. Outright victory over them was possible, but the warring cousins of our royals did not want that. Many of the religious sites subsequently destroyed by the Portuguese were Hindu more than Buddhist, in there place you find churches.

  4. Hi! Would you mind if I share your blog with my myspace group? There’s a lot of people that I think would really enjoy your content. Please let me know. Cheers

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