ANCIENT TEXT ON MILITARY ACTIVITIES.
Names of few text books on military tactics and strategy is mentioned in the Culavansa, a continuation of the ancient palm script manuscript of the 5 Cent AD.[ part II of Mahawansa].The story related in the Mahawansa where King Parakramabahu the Great made his appreciation of Battle based on Time and terrain according to Kautiliya books on Military Tactics is shown below, This is elaborated in Section 135 onwards whichis shown below,
PARAKRAMABAHU THE GREAT[ 1153-1186 AD ]
The Mahavansa[ Culavamsa ] in Chapter 70 paragraph 56 describing war preparations of Parakramabahu I[1153-1186 AD].
” With careful consideration of the work profitable for the carrying out the war, such as the text books Koatalla[ Kautalaya] the Yuddhannava and others[ now lost], He versed in the procedures of war, worked out with ingenuity in way according with the locality and the time, the plan of campaign [ Yuddhopaya] , wrote it down, had it handed out to the officers and gave the order.
‘ Doubt not that ye do thing of great moment, if ye do but swerve by a hair’s breadth from this my instruction.. … “.
Kautalya i. e. Chanakya, the famous minister of Chandragupta [320-270 BC ]is meant. He is alleged to be the author of a text book on politics, Artha-Sastra,
Culavamsa further states
“With the help of his lightning-like intelligence he learned easily and quickly from his teachers the various accomplishments. In the numerous books of the Victor (Buddha), in the works of politics, as in that of Kotallala and others, in grammar and poetry together with the knowledge of vocabulary and ritual, in dance and. song, in the art of driving the elephant and so forth, And the manipulation of the bow, the sword and other weapons he was past master. Admirably trained, he did everyihing that accorded with the King’s, his father’s wishes and was never lacking in reverence……….
These simple instructions known to all our ancient Kings and perhaps Commanders at all levels in the ancient Armies of the Sinhalese. The subjects and type of training of Kings are described in the Mahawansa. Since the book named as Yuddhannava and other books are not available for reference. But we can at least read between the lines in Mahawamsa and other books to what principle which are in kautilliya that was adhered too.
The books of Kautalaya and the section on Warfare can broadly seen below.
Book 7- Foreign Policy
Sec . 98 Enumeration of Six Measures
Sec . 99 Use of Measure of in Decline, Stable Condition of Advancement.
Sec .100 Conduct when Seeking Shelter
Sec. 101 Policies for the Equal , the Weaker and the Stronger Kings.
Sec, 102 Peace-Treaties by the ‘Weaker King
Sec. 108 Staying Quiet after Making War
Sec. 104 Staying Quiet after Making Peace
Sec. 105 Marching after Making War
Sec. 106 Marching after Making Peace’
Sec. 107 Marching with Other Kings
Sec. 108 Considerations about Attack on a Vulnerable King and the Enemy
Sec. 109 Causes Leading to Decline, Greed and Disaffection among Subjects
Sec. 110 Confederated Allies
Sec .111 March of two Allied Kings
Sec .112 Treaties with Stipulations, without Stipulations and with Deserters
Sec. 118 Peace and War Connected with Dual Policy
Sec .115 Allies fit to be Helped
Sec. 114 Conduct of the King about to be attacked
Sec. 116 Pacts for Securing an Alley, Money, Land and an Undertaking
Sec 117 Considerations about the King Attacking in the Rear
Sec. 118 Recoupment of Powers Become weak
Sec. 119 Entrenching oneself in a Fort in war with a Stronger King
sec. 120 Conduct of the King surrendering with Troops.
Sec. 121 Conduct of the King Subjugating by Force
Sec 122 The Making of Peace
Sec 123 Liberation of Hostage
Sec. 124 Conduct towards the Middle King
Sec. 125 Conduct towards the Neutral King
Sec 126 Conduct towards the Circle of Kings
Concerning the Topic of Calamities
Sec. 127 calamities of the constituent Elements
Sec. l28 Calamities of the King and Kingship
Sec. 129 Vices of Men
Sec. 130 Affliction
Sec 131 Hindrances
Sec. I32 Stoppages of Payment to the Treasury
Sec. l33 Calamities of the Army.
Sec. 134 Calamities of the Ally
Sec.135 Relative strength of powers, place and Time.
Sec.136 Season for Marching on Expedition
Sec.137 Employment of Different Troops
Sec.138 Equipping Troops for War
Sec.139 Employing Suitable Troops against Enemy Troop
Sec.140 Revolts in the Rear
Sec.141 Measures against Risings by Constituents
Sec.142 Consideration of Losses, Expenses and Gains
Sec. 143 Dangers from Officers
Sec. 144 Dangers from Traitors and Enemies
Sec 145 Danger from Advantages, Disadvantages and Uncertainity.
Sec. 146 Overcoming Dangers by Different Means
Book 10 Concerning War
Sec. 147 Setting up of the Camp
Sec. 148 March from the Camp
Sec. 149 Guarding Troops during Calamities and at the Time of Attack
Sec. 150 Covert Fighting
Sec. 151 Encouraging the Troops
Sec. I52 Disposition of Troops
Sec. 153 Grounds suitable for Fighting
Sec. 154 Functions of Infantry, Cavalry, Chariots and Elephants
Sec. 155 Arrangement of Battle Arrays
Sec. 156 Distribution of Strong and Weak Troops
Sec. 157 Modes of Fighting of Infantry, Cavalry, Chariots and Elephants
Sec. 158 Staff, Snake, Circle and Diffuse Arrays
Sec. 159 Counter-arrays against Them
Book 11 Policy towards Oligarchies
Sec. 160 The Policy of Sowing Dissensions
Sec. 161 Forms of Silent Punishment
Book 12 Concerning the Weaker King
Sec.162The Mission of the Envoy
Sec. 169 Overreaching by Force
Sec, 170 Victory of the Single King
Sec.163 Fight with the Weapon of Diplomacy
Sec.164 Assassination of Army Chiefs
Sec. 165 Stirring up the Circle of Kings
Sec.166 Secret Use of Weapons, Fire and Poison
Sec. 167 Destruction of Supplies, Reinforcements and Raids
Sec. 168 Overreaching the Enemy by Trickery
Book 13 Means of Taking a Fort
Sec. 171 Instigation to Sedition
Sec. 172 Drawing the Enemy out by Means of Stratagem
Sec.173 Employment of Secret Agents
Sec. 174 Laying Siege to a Fort
Sec. 175 Storming a Fort
Sec.176 Pacification of the Conquered Territory
Book 14 Concerning Secret Practices
Sec 177 Secret Practices for the Destruction of Enemy Troops
Sec 178 Deceiving through Occult Practices
Sec 179 Counter-measures against Injuries to One’s Own Troops
Book 15 The Method of the Science
Sec. 180 Devices Used in the Science