ANCIENT BOOKS ON MILITARY SCIENCES.

ANCIENT TEXT ON MILITARY ACTIVITIES.

Names of few text books on military tactics and strategy is mentioned in the Culavansa, a continuation of the ancient palm script manuscript of the 5 Cent AD.[ part II of Mahawansa].The story related in the Mahawansa where King Parakramabahu the Great made his appreciation of Battle based on Time and terrain according to Kautiliya books on Military Tactics is shown below, This is elaborated in Section 135 onwards whichis shown below,

Appreciations of Sinhala Kings

 

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PARAKRAMABAHU THE GREAT[ 1153-1186 AD ]

 

The Mahavansa[ Culavamsa ] in Chapter 70 paragraph 56 describing war preparations of Parakramabahu I[1153-1186 AD].

With careful consideration of the work profitable for the carrying out the war, such as the text books Koatalla[ Kautalaya] the Yuddhannava and others[ now lost], He versed in the procedures of war, worked out with ingenuity in way according with the locality and the time, the plan of campaign [ Yuddhopaya] , wrote it down, had it handed out to the officers and gave the order.

‘ Doubt not that ye do thing of great moment, if ye do but swerve by a hair’s breadth from this my instruction.. … “.

Kautalya i. e. Chanakya, the famous minister of Chandragupta [320-270 BC ]is meant. He is alleged to be the author of a text book on politics, Artha-Sastra,

Culavamsa further states

“With the help of his lightning-like intelligence he learned easily and quickly from his teachers the various accomplishments. In the numerous books of the Victor (Buddha), in the works of politics, as in that of Kotallala and others, in grammar and poetry together with the knowledge of vocabulary and ritual, in dance and. song, in the art of driving the elephant and so forth, And the manipulation of the bow, the sword and other weapons he was past master. Admirably trained, he did everyihing that accorded with the King’s, his father’s wishes and was never lacking in reverence……….

These simple instructions known to all our ancient Kings and perhaps Commanders at all levels in the ancient Armies of the Sinhalese. The subjects and type of training of Kings are described in the Mahawansa. Since the book named as Yuddhannava and other books are not available for reference. But we can at least read between the lines in Mahawamsa and other books to what principle which are in kautilliya that was adhered too.

The books of Kautalaya and the section on Warfare can broadly seen below.

Book 7- Foreign Policy

Sec . 98                   Enumeration of Six Measures

Sec . 99                   Use of Measure of in Decline, Stable Condition of Advancement.

Sec .100                 Conduct when Seeking Shelter

Sec. 101                Policies for the Equal , the Weaker and the Stronger Kings.

Sec, 102                Peace-Treaties by the ‘Weaker King

Sec. 108                Staying Quiet after Making War

Sec. 104                Staying Quiet after Making Peace

Sec. 105                Marching after Making War

Sec. 106                Marching after Making Peace’

Sec. 107                Marching with Other Kings

Sec. 108                Considerations about Attack on a Vulnerable King and the Enemy

Sec. 109                Causes Leading to Decline, Greed and Disaffection among Subjects

Sec. 110                Confederated Allies

Sec .111                March of two Allied Kings

Sec .112                Treaties with Stipulations, without Stipulations and with Deserters

Sec. 118               Peace and War Connected with Dual Policy

Sec .115                Allies fit to be Helped

Sec. 114               Conduct of the King about to be attacked

Sec. 116                Pacts for Securing an Alley, Money, Land and an Undertaking

Sec 117                 Considerations about the King Attacking in the Rear

Sec. 118                Recoupment of Powers Become weak

Sec. 119                Entrenching oneself in a Fort in war with a Stronger King

sec. 120                Conduct of the King surrendering with Troops.

Sec. 121               Conduct of the King Subjugating by Force

Sec 122                The Making of Peace

Sec 123                 Liberation of Hostage

Sec. 124                Conduct towards the Middle King

Sec. 125                Conduct towards the Neutral King

Sec  126                Conduct towards the Circle of Kings

Concerning  the Topic of Calamities

Sec. 127                calamities of the constituent Elements

Sec. l28                Calamities of the King and Kingship

Sec. 129                Vices of Men

Sec. 130               Affliction

Sec  131                Hindrances

Sec. I32                 Stoppages of Payment to the Treasury

Sec. l33                Calamities of the Army.

Sec. 134                Calamities of the Ally

 

Book 9Appreciations of Sinhala Kings The Activity of the Klng, About to March

Sec.135                 Relative strength of powers, place and Time.

Sec.136                 Season for Marching on Expedition

Sec.137                 Employment of Different Troops

Sec.138                 Equipping Troops for War

Sec.139                 Employing Suitable Troops against Enemy Troop

Sec.140                 Revolts in the Rear

Sec.141                 Measures against Risings by Constituents

Sec.142                 Consideration  of Losses, Expenses and Gains

Sec. 143               Dangers from Officers

Sec. 144               Dangers from Traitors and Enemies

Sec  145                Danger  from Advantages, Disadvantages and Uncertainity.

Sec. 146                Overcoming  Dangers by Different Means

 

Book 10 Concerning War

Sec. 147               Setting up of the Camp

Sec. 148                March from the Camp

Sec. 149                Guarding Troops during Calamities and at the Time of Attack

Sec. 150                Covert Fighting

Sec. 151                Encouraging the Troops

Sec. I52                 Disposition of Troops

Sec. 153                Grounds suitable for Fighting

Sec. 154                Functions of Infantry, Cavalry, Chariots and Elephants

Sec. 155                Arrangement of Battle Arrays

Sec. 156                Distribution of Strong and Weak Troops

Sec. 157                Modes of Fighting of Infantry, Cavalry, Chariots and Elephants

Sec. 158                Staff, Snake, Circle and Diffuse Arrays

Sec. 159                Counter-arrays against Them

Book 11 Policy towards Oligarchies

Sec. 160                The  Policy of Sowing Dissensions

Sec. 161                Forms of Silent Punishment

Book 12 Concerning the Weaker King

Sec.162The Mission of the Envoy

Sec. 169                Overreaching by Force

Sec, 170                Victory of the Single King

Sec.163                Fight with the Weapon of Diplomacy

Sec.164                Assassination of Army Chiefs

Sec. 165                Stirring up the Circle of Kings

Sec.166                Secret Use of Weapons, Fire and Poison

Sec. 167                Destruction of Supplies, Reinforcements and Raids

Sec. 168                Overreaching the Enemy by Trickery

Book 13  Means of Taking a Fort

Sec. 171                Instigation to Sedition

Sec. 172                Drawing the Enemy out by Means of Stratagem

Sec.173                 Employment of Secret Agents

Sec. 174                Laying Siege to a Fort

Sec. 175                Storming a Fort

Sec.176                 Pacification of the Conquered Territory

Book 14 Concerning Secret Practices

Sec  177                Secret Practices for the Destruction of Enemy Troops

Sec  178               Deceiving  through Occult Practices

Sec  179              Counter-measures against Injuries to One’s Own Troops

Book 15   The Method of the Science

Sec. 180                Devices Used in the Science

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