Kings Pandukabaya[377-307 BC] and King Mutusiva[307-247BC] on Ancient Inscriptions?

This sculpture overlooking the city of Anuradhapura is now identified as that of King Pandukabaya and his Mare Chetiya.

This page was written for the benefit of those Srilankan who are  interested in the history of their ancient Kings. Presently we have epigraphical evidence of King up to Devanampiyatissa a contemporary of King Asoka of India. Inscriptions that trace the history of kings of Sri Lanka further back is given under. The ancient Ola leaf manuscript the Mahavansa is on line.www. Lakdiva.org. and the list of inscription is line on the www.royalasiaticsociety.lk.

A different colour letters are used to indicate different kings.

Gonavatte Inscription is in Gandahaya Korale of Patha Hevaheta in Kandy District near 5 1/2 mile post on Kandy- Haguranketa Road. – Views of Leelandra Amerasinghe Sanasgama

Inscription of Pandukaabaya

Translation

The son of king Mahacudika was king Abhaya; the son of king Abhaya was king Naga; the son of king Naga was king Abhaya.  The cave named Mahasudassana, caused to be fashioned bv Gamani Tissa, the son of [that] king Abhaya, has been established for the Sangha of the four quarters past and present.

This inscription is of the oldest type script in which Sinhalese was written in the ancient period, and may be  dated to the 2 CentBC. The Gamini Tissa is believed to be King Kakavantissa . Gamini was a title assigned to those who ruled the Southern  region of Ruhuna, few of these rulers   became the Main king [ Maharaja] Anuradhapura. This inscription gives the ancestry of King Kakavantissa for five generations. His father is Abhaya was  King Gotabhaya. Gotabhaya father was Naga, known as King Mahanaga. Mahanaga father is an Abaya , whose father was Mahacudika.

But according to Mahwansa and Dipawansa Prince Mahanaga were brothers of King Devanampiyatisa and Uttiya who ruled at Anuradhapura while Mahanaga made hasty retreat to Ruhuna when Devanampiyatisa Queen attempted  to Kill him[ Mahanaga] with poisoned  Mango ,Her [ Queen’s]own son who was with Mahanaga ate the mango and died.[ Mahawansa ].

According to the Mahawansa, Dipawansa , the Rajavaliya  states that Prince YatalaTissa was the son of Mahanaga and was grand son of Gotabhaya. But the inscription  at Deyangekema near Situlpavu  confirms the relationship between Mahanaga and YatalaTissa..

Uparaja Mahanaka puta yatalaka tissa Maharagha.’

There is no inscription yet found that states the  Gotabhaya was Yatala Tissa son.

 Kusalakande inscription gives the relationship between Mahanaga, Gotabhaya and Kavantissa

Kusalakande Inscription.

‘Upa ragha Naga pute ragha Abhaya  nama tase puta Gamini Tisa nama sudasane sagasa….’

Gamini Tisa the son of King Abhaya the son of King Naga,,,,,,,,,,,,

Few historians now think that Gotabhaya and Yatala Tissa was brothers and sons of Mahanaga., they all reigned in Ruhuna. While Kings Devanampitisa  and  Uttiya, ruled in Anuradhapura.

According to Chronicles Mahawansa Kings Devanampiyatisa, Uttiya and  Sub king of the Ruhuna Mahanaga were the Ten Sons  of Mutusiva. There is also a inscription at Mottayakallu where this is verified on a stone inscription

Mottayakallu (Ref. A CA R. 1950, p. 28),

This inscription is of a Gamini Tissa  who is the grandson [marumakanake]  of  king Naga[ Mahanaga] whose Grand-Father was Pasasadika Abaya, the father of 10 brother kings [Dasa-bhatika-rana].

 (1) ~Dasa-bhatika-rana, [ ]vakas-naya  Uparajha-Naga Uparajha-Nagaha marumakanake

maha-[pa]sadhikes Abhaya-rajhaha pute

(2) Gamani-Tisaha vihare

(3) agata-anagata-bhiku-sagasa Niyate

 

 ‘The monastery of Gamani Tissa, the grandson of Uparaja Naga, the  ?vaka leader of the ten brother kings, and son of king Maha[pa]sadhika Abhaya, is dedicated to the Bhikkhu-Sangha,present and absent.’

The father of these according to inscription above the father of Kings- Devanampiyatisa, Uttiya and Mahanaga is  King Abaya. He is called Mutusiva in the Mahawansa. In Dipawansa  Mutusiva and in Rajavaliya[ List of Kings] as Ganatissa .

 King Abhaya father is King Mahakudika in Gonavatte Inscription and  name in according to Mahawansa King Pandu- Abhaya and Dipawansa  is  King Pakundaka and Rajavaliya is Pandukabhaya.

Dr S Paranavitane traced an inscription which he belived to be have made references to King Devanampiyatissa[247-207 BC] in Inscriptions of Ceylon Vol I. In this book he has assigned this to a generation of Kings from Mahaculi Mahatissa, Rajha Abaya as Kutukana Abhaya[ 41-19  BC], his son Rajah Naga as Mahadathika Mahanaga[9-21 AD]his son Rajha Abaya as Amandagamini Abhya[ 23-21 AD], he has not accounted for Gamini Tisa from the chronicles. The script too seems to be earlier than this period, the first century AD, as the letters Ma, Jha and Sa is written in a different way.

Inscription of Pandukaabaya 1So the Islands History can now be traced to Kings two generations earlier than King Devanampiyatissa from rock inscriptions. I personally feel that this rock inscription thanks to  Leelandra Amerasinghe Sanasgama, who wrote about in the Sinhala Newspaper Rivira in  20 July 2008 , must be made a land mark for all Sri Lankan to visit and it is so close to Kandy.

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