16. Bhuvaneka Bahu I, A.D. 1273-1284.

AV,’. “Half massa,”

. AR. ‘. ” Massa ” ” of four different weights,” “half,” and ” quarter massa.” These gold and silver coins are given by Lowsley, who figures the silver ” quarter ” in his plate,

AE.:Average of 100: Diameter,0.74 inch:weight, 63.7 grains. Of 57 cleaned, 62.l grains.Pl. 86.

Legend :,Sri Bhuva naika Bahu.

Sri, usually without vowel ; also with unattached vowel.

Bhu, the letter (i) forms three sides of a parallelogram, the left hand side being open ; or (ii)consists of two lines forming a right angle to the right, the vertical being surmounted by a head of varying length. The vowel mark is written (a) attached as a prolongation of the right hand vertical; it bends downwards to the left either in a curve directly from the lower right hand corner, or in a curl or a wavy line from the vertical, which is it self prolonged.These are found only with form (i) of the letter. (6) It is a continuation of the lower horizontal line which , i.e prolonged in a bulging curve of varying size to the right. In two specimens the tail of the vowel mark is carried beyond the left side of the letter in a sweep.In another variety the vertical line is sometimes continued downwards, in some cases almost reaching the bottom of the vowel. (c) It is attached to the end of the vertical,which is prolonged slightly below the lower horizontal 1ine, and bulges as in (b). . (d) It is separated from the letter, the curve beginning either at the side or below, In a solitary specimen with the vowel below, the vertical is prolonged downwards to a length equal to that of the letter, In another with the vowel beginning at the side, the whole is inverted.In (e) the letter itself is divided ; the lower horizontal line being separated from the vertical,to which the vowel is attached as in (b) ; in one case the vowel commences slightly to the left of the vertical, and is then carried to the right as in (b). In all the above there are many sub-varieties, and the lower horizontal line of the letter often ends in a short upright stroke.

Va, this sometimes has the vertical curved,

nai, this has many variations : (1) The letter is without the portion of the vowel above the horizontal line and reads ne. (2) When it is complete, the upper portion is (d) a prolongation of the horizontal line to the left ; (r) a slight stroke sloping to the left attached to the left hand top corner; (c) a stroke of varying length starting from the left half of the horizontal line ; (d) a similar stroke from th6 centre ; (e) a long stroke from the right hand corner ; (f) the same, but more pronounced ; and (g) the right hand vertical is prolonged slightly . upwards and then carried up diagonally to the left or parallel to the horizontal line, inboth cases over the whole breadth of the letter. In a few the vowel mark is a short vertical stroke rising from (ft) the left half, or (i) the centre of the horizontal line. Inversions occasionally occur of (c), (d), and (g). In these the letter itself has the arm of the n projecting, in the tlvo latter cases in the shape of a semicircle, from the inner side of the left hand vertical, the vowel mark remaining in the normal place,


ka, this is slightly normal, or has the centre stroke just crossing the line of the arms, or unusually long. It also sometimes reads kra

hu more or less of this letter appears.

The normal heads are few ; those usually to be found are (a) (1), (b)(1), (c) (i) (:) and (ii) (2)

In some specimens the flower in the right hand of the standing figure and at the right end of the stalk under the feet on the obverse is divided into three distinct prongs.


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