A fractional piece a fourth[ 17-17.5 grains] in weight of a Kalanda of Gold[69-70 grains] is found in fair quantities and in many varieties. The word deaka is mentioned in the famous inscription of Mahinda IV [956-972 AD] at Minhintale slab B,line 7 in regard to a grant made to a monastic establishment. The slab A sets out the rules and regulations of accounting [ single entry accounting system, the books to be maintained, the monthly closing of accounts , yearly audit etc. The slab B deals with the emoluments of the servants and in line 7 it spell out how is paid for whitewashing and for supplying of flowers. The emoluments for each type of service is laid out in Kalanda’s and In De-aka’s.
“…………………. havuruduvakat setuvamat mal mila tun kalan de-akak isa.………. ”
” For the cost white-washing and flowers three Kalands and a De-aka of Gold shall be given……”.Epigraphia Zeylanica Vol I page 88].
Dr Paranavitane reads the legend as La Ka Ma or the Ma of Lanka. Ma according to Mr OMR Sirisena who spent his life time collecting and studying these gold coins, is the Sinhala for the Sanskrit Massa, which denotes a weight in gold or silver.The ancient Sinhalese used these short terms in their hela language that is found on our inscription.
The Massa according to Mr Sirisena is the Suvarnamasaka, which is the sixteenth part[ Shodasa] of a Suvarnna. He goes further ‘ Suvarna mashakah shodasa suvarnah..’. as stated in Arthasatra of Kautilya, a counsellor and advisor of King Chandragupta of the Mayura dynasty. A gold masaka which was current in Ancient India is said to have weighed 17 grains- Sunday Island on 13.08.1989.
HW Codrington in chapter VI, read the legend as Lakshmi. S.Paranavitana has given a different reading as La Ka Ma. Read Legend on gold Coinage – S Paranavitane.
The closer analysis of the letters show it may perhaps to Sri La Ka ma, as shown in the two diagrams below perhaps experts will re-look at these diagrams.
DEAKA OR PALA -TYPE II- “Lakshmi”
Six varieties of De-akas of the known Seven varieties of Type II coins has been published as at Jan 2010 is published under.The general description of all type II De-akas of Gold.The variety are named after the auspicious symbol that is held in the left hand on the obverse and the auspicious symbol over letter La on the reverse. In the case of te coin shown below it is named Lotus & Adahanda[ Crescent Moon].
Type II (l) ” Lotus and adahanda.”
- (a)Obv.: Standing figure as last ; crown, a curved line behind head, turning to 1. at bottom, with small circle, perhaps representing ear-ring, beneath ; body thin ; in left hand a full-blown lotus. To right a standing lamp as on half- to right a fire-altar. All in bead circle.
- Rev. : In bead circle same legend under A
- to left. ; two dots under first letter, which is smaller than the following.The Legend is as on I, but the vertical line below the head of ksh is carried downwards, then up to the left in a circle, and, after crossing the vertical, again downwards to the right. The left hand vertical of the m is continued below the right side of the circle and is curved. Vowel as in H.C.P.Bell’s coin.
Diameter :0.55 in. Weight : l6.4 gr. C.A., Pl. XlV, 10, PI.56.
(b) Almost identical with last. Symbol to l. resembles symbol I (a) on kahavanuva lll A, but is shorter; to r. fire-altar, taller than in last Legend as in 1
R.D., 10 (Brit. Mus.). Diameter 0.49 in. Weight : 16.5 gr
(c) As II (2), but on Obv lotus and on rev. adahanda. H.C.P.Bell’s.
TYPE II-“Lotus & Adahanda” A Coin of Brig Munasinghe.
- Obv:Standing Figure with left leg crossed behund right with Lotus in left hand and trace of two lamps on either side .
- Rev:Nagari script Lakhsmi or Sr La ka Ma, under double crescent and two dots below first letter.Coin No 1 Diameter : 13.2mm.[ Parts of sides the gold have been shaved off]
- Weight- 0.99 gram.
- TYPE II-“Lotus & Adahanda” A Coin of Mr OMR Sirisena.,
- Obv;Kuvera standing , left leg crossed behind right;left arm holding in hand a full blown lotus;to left , standing lamp;to right a fire alter.
- Rev: Nagari legend lakshmi or Sri La Ka Ma under a [ crescent ]; two dot under first letter,
- Coin No 1 Diameter : 16.66 mm.Weight- 13 grains
TYPE II(2) “Adahanda and lotus”
- Obv. : Head, less perfect. Crown varies considerably : (i) A curved line turning outwards at bottom and ending in a dot ; (ii) as (i), but with a horizontal line, also ending in a dot crossing and projecting to the l. from the curved line ; (iii) a vertical line turned inwards at either end towards head ; behind, in centre a dot. In l. hand
- . Symbols : to 1. variety of II (a), resembling a barbed arrowhead ; to r altar.
- Rev. : Legend under full-blown lotus to left. Arm of k to l. ; vowel mark not curved over to right , of compound letter, but twisted upwards in a flourish. Two dots above and below first letter. Finely executed. Lowsley Pl VIII, 4. Pl. 57.
There exist two specimens of silver or very base gold Variant As(2), but no dots above first letter : rougher
|Diameter||Weight||In||..||Gr||..||–||Colo. Mus., 132||..||0.53||..||14.7||..||–||Colo. Mus., 133||..||0.51||..||14||..||–||H.W.C||..||0.53||..||15.8||..||–||H.C.P.B||..||0.55||..||15.8||..||CA., Pl XIV, II||Diameter||Weight||In||..||Gr||..||–||H.W.C||..||0.55||..||15.5||..||–|
- TYPE II(2)-“Adahanda & Lotus ” A COIN OF Mr OMR Sirisena.
- Coin No 1 Diameter : 15.71mm.Weight- 14 grains.
- (f).TYPE II-“
- ” A unique Coin of Mr OMR Sirisena.
- Coin No 1 Diameter : 16.13mm.Weight- 14 grains
- (d).TYPE II- “Adahanda & Lotus ” A Coin of Brig Munasinghe.Obv:Standing Figure with left leg crossed behind right with double crescent
Adahanda in left hand and thin lamp to right and fire alter to left.Rev:Nagari legend Lakshmi under a Lotus and two dot under letters to left.
- Coin No 1 Diameter :13 mm.Weight- 1.029 grams
- (e).TYPE II-“Adahanda & Lotus ” A Coin OF Brig Munasinghe.Obv:Standing Figure with left leg crossed behind right with double crescent
Adahanda in left hand and thin lamp to right and fire alter to left.Rev: Nagari legend Lakshmi under a Lotus and two dot under letters to left.
- Diameter :12.8 mm[ Part of left top sides the gold have been shaved off].
Weight- 0.809 grams
- (e).TYPE II-“Adahanda & Lotus ” A Coin of Dr Lakshman Ranasinghe.
- Obv:Standing Figure with left leg crossed behind right with double crescent A
- in left hand and thin lamp to right and fire alter to left.
Rev: Nagari legend Lakshmi under a Lotus and two dot under letters to left.Diameter : mm.Weight: grams
- (e).TYPE II-“Adahanda & Lotus ” A Coin of Dr Lakshman Ranasinghe
- Obv:Standing Figure with left leg crossed behind right with double crescent
Adahanda in left hand and thin lamp to right and fire alter to left.
Rev:Nagari legend Lakshmi under a Lotus and two dot under letters to left.Diameter : mm.Weight: grams.
TYPE II (3) “Double lotus.”
- Obv. : Crown, curved line, with three linked dots in triangle in rear symbol to ‘ as in (2)Full-Blown lotus in hand
(b).TYPE II(3)-“Double Lotus ” A COINS OF Mr OMR Sirisena.
The double Lotus found on both faces of coins is also interesting. The Jetwanarama sinhala Nagari Inscription of Mahinda IV[ 956-972 AD] has a double Lotus very similar to the the Lotus found on our coins.
- Coin No 1 Diameter : 15.71mm.Weight- 14 grains
TYPE II (4) ” Double Adahanda
- Obv. : crown as (3) ; in hand as adahanda, To l. symbol indistinct, but long.
The symbol appears to be a Trisula, See type II(7) of Mr OMR Sirisena below
Rev. : legend under adahanda as in (2) ; no arm to k, lower line of m not joined to vertical line on r; two dots under first letter
- TYPE II (5) “JASSAMINE BUD & LOTUS”
- The Deaka fractional piece of this type is not recorded???
TYPE II (6) “FLOWER & ADAHANDA”
Obv; Kuvera standing .left leg crossed behind right; left arm bent and holding a Flower;to left a standing lamp and to right similar lamp or fire alter
Rev: Nagari legend lakhsmi under Adahanda.
Coin No 1 Diameter :14 mm.Weight- 14.19 grains
- TYPE II(7)-
“Trisula & Adahanda”
Obv; Kuvera standing .left leg crossed behind right; left arm bent and holding a trident or Trisula;to left a standing lamp and to right similar lamp or fire alter.
Rev: Nagari legend lakhsmi under Adahanda, two dot under first letter.
A COINS OF Brig Munasinghe .
Obv: same as above
Rev: Nagari legend lakhsmi under double Crescent and two dots under Letter La Adahanda
Diameter :12.9[Part of right side the gold chipped off. mm.Weight- 0,979 grams