AKA’S OF GOLD.

Fractional Pieces

AKA

HW Codrington  names  the reading of the script as Nandaki with a question mark, perhaps he always had this doubt, S Paranavitane gave is own  interpretation which is different from this  reading. Click Script on Gold Coinage.
The Nagari script of the 9/10 Cent AD familiar  to the Sinhalese of that period  is on the Jetwanarama Inscription. A comparison of the script appearing on the inscription and those on the Gold Coins of around 8 grains in weight is given below.There are many other Nagari inscription the script of which  must be compared with the script on coins. The  Sinhala letters A and  Ka too is very similar to the Letters on the Coin found in 5/6 Cent AD look alike to non- expert like me.  According to S Paranavitane  front portion of the  Nagari A is separated from the rear vertical line. An examples of this happening  even on Sinhala Inscription is shown on Script on Gold Coinage mentioned  above.

The Script on Jetwanarama Inscription.

(i)(?) Nandaki

16. The legend was read as Tamraka by Professor Rhys Davids from the only specimen then before him (R.D. No. 12) ; the first letter, however, is clearly a Na while the middle one, though formed like ra, has an additional stroke to the left towards the top. The dot, taken for the Anusvara, is sometimes doubled and sometimes absent The later form of the legend in series (ii) has been read as Daraka at lraka But the initial I of the period bears no resemblance to the letter on the coin, which, undoubtedly, is an initial U ; this becomes assimilated to the cerebral D. Neither legend, as hitherto read, gives any sense. The die cutters probably had little or no knowledge of the Nagari alphabet, as is shown the blundered rendering of the name Lakshmi and of the letter of the legend on Nissanka Malla’s issue.It is almost certain that the legend on both series comes from the original, which has been corrupted by unintelligent copying. If this be the case, the initial U or D on series (ii) is merely a modification-of the Na on series (i). On this analogy it is now suggested that the middle letter on the coins of the earlier series is a corruption of nda, the legend originally reading Nandaki, a title given to Krshna-Vishnu from his , from possession of the sword Nandaka.

The Script on two Type I Akas of Gold- Vase or Punkajas.

12185a12185b85b17. Type I “Vase”.
Obv. : Standing figure, as on half kahavanuva.; crown, a curved line from top of head to bottom, curved upwards to left at lower end” In left hand a vase, from which issues a plant composed of a straight line bifurcated at the top and two leaves. Symbol to I., a lamp shown as a vertical line with a short cross piece for the foot, another cross piece three- quarters of the way up and a smaller Line between this and the foot ; to r. squat fire-altar. All in bead circle.
Rev. : In bead circle under adahanda ,legend : Nandaka, with dot above and between the first and second letters ; the N is normal, somewhat resembling the medieval Tamil c ; the K has a slight projection from the lower part of the left limb and no vowel mark.
The gold is good. H.C.P.B. Diameter: .45 in. Weight :8.2 gr. C.A., Pl. XIV No. 15.

Pl 63.

17. Type I;  “Vase “.  Two coins of Mr OMR Sirisena.
Obv. : Standing figure; crown, In left hand a vase, from which issues a plant composed of a straight line bifurcated at the top and two leaves. Symbol to I., a lamp ; to r. squat fire-altar. All in bead circle.
Rev. : In bead circle ,legend : Tamraka, with dot above second letter.

Type II (1) ; ” Lotus and adahanda.”
Obv. : Standing figure, as last; crown, a curved line from top to bottom of head with dot attached just above lower end. In l. hand a full-blown lotus. Symbol to l. as on Lakshmi II (l) (b) ;to r. fire-altar, All in bead circle.
Rev. : In bead circle under adahanda , legend : Nandaki , with dot over first letter. Lowsley, PI.VIII,2.

Diameter Weight
In .. Gr ..
R.D. 12 (Brit. Mus.) .. 0.41 .. 7.8 .. Pale gold
British Museum .. .. 7.6 .. Good gold-

Type II (1); ” Lotus and adahanda”.  A coin of Mr OMR Sirisena.
Obv. : Standing figure, as last; crown, In l. hand a full-blown lotus.Lamp Symbol to l above hand;to r. fire-altar, All in bead circle.
Rev. : In bead circle under adahanda , legend : Nandaki , with dot over first letter

( 2 )Adahanda and lotus.”
Obv : Head and crown as on Lakshmi II(2), variety (ii) of the crown being the commonest; the junction of the curved line and of the projection is marked by a dot. In left  hand Adahanda. Symbol to l. as on Lakshmi II (2) ; to r fire-altar.
Rev. : In bead circle under full-blown lotus, legend as last, Two dots over first letter. This is a circle with a head, the right hand limb of the normal letter being a tail projecting from the right or right lower side of the circle. Lowsley, PI. VIII, 3

PL 64.

Diameter Weight
In .. Gr ..
Colo. Mus., 133a .. 0.43 .. 8,2 .. Crown (ii)
Colo. Mus., 133b .. 0.41 .. 8.9 .. Crown (ii)-
H.C.P.B .. 0.45 .. .. -Crown (i)
H.C.P.B .. 0.46 .. 7.4 .. Crown (ii)
P,E,P .. 0.39 .. 7.6 .. Crown (ii)-
? .. 0.43 .. 7.2 .. Crown (iii)-Pale gold

This type is the commonest. In addition to variations in the form of the crown, there are also variations of thick and thin lettering.

Type II (1); “Adahanda and Lotus”. A coin of Mr OMR Sirisena.
Obv. : Standing figure, as last; crown, In left hand a full-blown lotus.Lamp Symbol to l above hand;to right fire-altar, All in bead circle.
Rev. : In bead circle under adahanda , legend : Nandaki , with dot over first letter

Type II (1); “Double Lotus”. A coin of Mr OMR Sirisena.
Obv. : Standing figure, as last; crown, In left hand a full-blown lotus.Lamp Symbol to l above hand;to right fire-altar, All in bead circle.
Rev. : In bead circle under Lotus the legend : Nandaki , with dot over first letter
(3) “Double adahanda;”
Obv. : As crown (ii). Rev: Above legend a semicircle enclosing a circle of dots (moon and sun). Fine lettering ; head of N is concave, and there is no dot over ii. Pale gold. Pl. 65

Diameter Weight
In .. Gr ..
H.C.P.B, .. 0.45 .. 7.7 .. C.A., Pl. XIV, 17
P.E.P .. 0.43 .. 6.2 .. Broken

Type II (1);  “Flower & Lotus”. A coin of Mr OMR Sirisena.
Obv. : Standing figure, as last; crown, In left hand a a Flower with three petals.Lamp Symbol to lft above hand;to right. fire-altar, All in bead circle.
Rev. : In bead circle under Lotus the legend : Nandaki , with dot over first letter

AKA

(ii) Uraka

18. For legend see , Aka (i).

Type III (l), “Ball and annulet.”
Obv : Head, imperfect ; crown, as on kahavanuva III A. In  hand a ball symbols : left. as Lakshmi IIIA (l) ; right a tall fire altar. All in bead circle.
Rev: Under annulet between two dots legend Uraka. To r. over arm of last akshara dot the heads of the first and last letter are concave. All in bead circle. Lowsley, Pl.VIII. 5. Pl.66.

Diameter Weight
In .. Gr ..
Colo. Mus., 136 .. 0.41 .. 8,2 ..
Colo. Mus., 137 .. 0.43 .. 8.1 ..
Colo. Mus., 138 .. 0.41 .. 8.2 ..
Madras Mus., l8. .. .. ..
H.C.P.B .. 0.39 .. 6.3 .. C.A., Pl. XIV 18

The Colombo Museum No. 140 is of silver, once gilt; its diameter is .39 inch, and weighr 4.6 grains

Type III (l), “Ball and annulet.“Mr OMR Sirisena .
Obv : Head with crown, as on kahavanuva III A. In let  hand a Ball symbols : left as lamp ; right a tall fire altar. All in bead circle.
Rev: Under annulet between two dots legend Uraka. To r. over arm of last akshara a dot.

(2) ” Jessamine flower and chank.’,
Obv : crown, two parallel lines with dot in rear., In l. hand Jessamine flower as on kahavanuva III B and C . No symbol to left . ; to right a fire-altar. In one specimen the foot of the altar is a small ring. All in bead circle.
Rev. : In bead circle, chank over legend, which reads : (i) Uraka,(ii) Daraka.

Diameter Weight
In .. Gr ..
Madras Museum, 17 .. .. .. Pl.67
H.W.C. .. 0.41 .. 7.4 ..
Colo. Mus., 134 .. 0.43 .. 8,7 .. Pl.68
Colo. Mus., 135 .. 0.39 .. 8.1 ..
Elliot, Pl, IV,157 .. .. 8.2 ..
R.D.,13 .. 0.41 .. 8.0 ..
H.W.C. .. 0.42 .. 7.4 .. Broken
H.W.C. .. 0.45 .. 7.8 ..
Madras Museum, 16 .. .. ..
H.C.P.B .. 0.43 .. 6.2 ..

The British Museum possesses a coin with legend (i) , but in silver ; it weighs 5 grains Variant (i)-Chank reversed, point to the left. H.C.P.B. Weight: 8.1 gr. C,A., Pl. XIV Pl. 69 A.
Variant (ii) Chank and legend reversed.

Diameter Weight
In .. Gr ..
Colo. Mus., 139 .. 0.43 .. 8.6 ..
H.C.P.B .. .. 6.3 .. Base Gold Pl 69 B

variant (iii)-Chank normal, legend reversed. Diameter : 0.39 in. weight :7.6 gr. The coins of type III (2) are not uncommon, and probably were current for several centuries.
(2) ” Jessamine flower and Chank “ Mr OMR Sirisena,


Obv : crown, , In l. hand Jessamine ,Symbol to left a lamp. ; to r. fire-altar. All in bead circle.
Rev. : In bead circle, chank over legend, which reads Daraka.

” Jessamine flower and chank “ . Mr OMR Sirisena,
Rev: Chank reversed.

” Jessamine flower and chank “ . Mr OMR Sirisena,
Rev: Chank and legend reversed.

Comments by Dr S Paranavitane of the reading of legend.

CHAPTER IV

(?)Massa

19 This, minute coin of base gold is of the highest rarity, only two or three specimens being known; it is clearly connected; it is by its obverse with the Ceylon series-and is therefore inserted here
Type.” Jessamine flower and chank.”
Obv : standing figure, Jessamine flower in hand, and. fire-altar at side as in uraka (2) ; all in bead circle.
Rev: In bead circle under chank legend consisting of four akshara as in two lines  Pl. 70.

Diameter Weight
In .. Gr ..
Madras Mus.9.l .. 0.28 .. 8.6 ..
H.C.P.B .. .. 2.8 .. C.A. Pl. XlV,20

The gold in both is pale. and probably contains a large admixture of silver. The weight is that of a masaka.

The legend is read as Sri Vijaya Bahu in the Madras Museum Catalogue of Ceylon Coins, 1694, but in neither specimen is there a trace of letters in the upper part of the reverse, which is occupied by the chank, nor is there room for such. The first two akshara read Jatya or Janya and the last Ta; the third is doubtful. The legend might: conceivably be a blundered attempt far Jaya Bahu, but the absence of the Sri renders this unlikely

All the known specimens were found in India ; this, however, does not necessarily disprove their Ceylon origin as the only known “eighth” of Dharmmasoka copper issue was also found there (Ind. Ant., 1895, p.332).

But may well be South Indian coins ; the long heads of the letters are not unlike those on the Uttama Cola. And pieces of Rajendra Cola I (C.S.I., Pl. IV, 154).

A copper Massa of King Jayabahu has been found in the Island.

King Jayabahu reigned after King Vijeyabahu I, a single coin where he calls himself MaAdiJayaBaHu

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