IV METROLOGY-HW Codrington.
25. On turning to the tables annexed to this chapter it will be seen at once that all,whether of India or Ceylon has close family resemblance. For purpose of meteorology and numismatics, The Island separated from the mainland, the very names of many of the weights being derived from the Tamil, a fact sufficiently explained by geographical position, as well as by the constant intercourse between the two countries. The tables differ in the values of (a) the panam and its synonyms discussed above ; and (b) the karsham and its equivalent. This last is always the fourth of the palam. and thus corresponds with Manu’s karsha or suvarna, the designation perpetuated in the Sinhalese huna. In Ceylon the number of kalanjus in the palam varied with the article weighed from 8 to 10 or 12, and in the seventeenth century to 20. According to the Sinhalese commentary inserted in the medical work Sarartha Sangraha, the first kind of palam is used in weighing all liquid poisons, the second all spices, the third all kinds of roots, it was this last which was employed by the goldsmiths. The different value of the Malabar karsham and its corresponding weights in the other tables is sufficiently accounted for by, this variations of the palam, which probably was not confined to Ceylon ; such is still found in the present commercial tulam and param similar practice existed with regard to the ayamani, the first of these two weights, in Magadha in the fourth century, before Christ (Arthasastra, Appendix C, l).
Moggallana’s table, composed in the twelfth century, is in substantial agreement with the others but present certain notable differences. His value of pala is confirmed by the Tika of the contemporary Vinayantaha Manjusa, which incidentally states in the introduction that ten kalandas of sugar make a pala (eka palan nama das Kalanjanti vadanti) But his statement that five dharanas are a Suvanna (and) five of these a nikkha. Has no counterpart in Southern usage. His table is Perhaps a compilation from various inconsistent sources.
It will be observed that the differentiates the nikkha from the pala. The equation of five suvvana and one Nikkha is found- in the Visakhaya vatthu in the tenth century Dampiya Atuve getapadaya, in th pali of Ummaga Jathikaya , and also in Yajnavalkya, where the pala ar nishka consists of 4 or 5 suvunnas. I am unable to check the source of the suvanna of five Dharanas.Nishka in medical works is used as the Sanskrit equivalent of kalanju.
26. In Ceylon the seeds now generally employed by the people for weighing small quantities: medical preparations the those of the mavi [ Tamil,periyavellai) variety paddy ; they are not selected for size, all of mature growth being accepted,
|Jaffna||1,000 seeds||593.52 gr||., or 0.593 gr. a seed|
|Polonnaruva||do||400.32 do||0.400 do|
|Matale||do||46l.74 do||0.618 do|
The weight of the manjadi ar madeta also seems to increase with the dryness of the locality though it is difficult to account for the lack weight in the Polonnaruwa specimens :-
|selected by eye||4.40|
|Anuradhapura||800||selected by Gold smith||4.08|
|20||selected by eye||4.54|
|20||selected by eye||3.49|
|Matale||100||selected by a native doctor||3.46|
|30||selected by eye||3.6|
These last agree with Daly’s- experiments , by which the madeta weighed between 3 and 3.9 grains.with an average of 3.6 grains (Interior Ceylon).The Gunja or Olinda seed also varies , the average of 30 from Kegalle being 1.82, of 400 from Tanamankaduwa (Pollonaruva). 1.590, and of 50 from Puttalam 1.65 grains.
The weight of the kalanda as obtained from the seeds tests is as follows:-
FROM THE PADDY SEED.
|Each Grains weight||Kalanda weight inGrains|
FROM THE MADETA SEED.
The light kalanda based on the paddy seed is thus slightly in excess of the lighter two derived from the madeta. with tThe light kalanda based on the paddy seed is thus slightly in excess of the lighter of the two derived from the madeta. We probably shall not be far wrong if we take the ideal weight as about Z0 to 72 grains,For the weight of the Sinhalese kalanda as actually used various tests exist, all, however, of modern times :-
(l) The Inventories do Thesouro do Rei de Ceyao of l55l gives 52 ½ calanjas as equal to one mark ;the ” calanja ” therefore, was 67.457, and the ” mangelim “, 3.372 English grains.
(2) Nunes in his.Lyvro dos Pesos of 1554 gives underCeylon: 8 grains of rice= 1 mamgelim,
20 mamgelins = l calanja, and states that 8 calanjas 2 mamgelins equaled in weight one portuguez. This coin, according to M. B. L. Fernandes’ Memoria das Moedas correntes emPortugal (Lisbon,1856, was 712 ½ graos or 547.585 English grains. Thus, the .calanja and the .mamgelins were 67.603 and 3.380 grains respectively.
(3) Knox (1660-1679) gives 20 ” red Berries ” or ” Seeds ” as equal to a collonda, of which.. six make just a piece-of-eight. and twenty a ” pallum ” (Historical Relation of Ceylon, Pt. III, Chap.VIII). If the piece-of-eight weighs 418-420 grains, the kalanda will be 69.9-7O and the madeta 3.48-3.5 grains. A forty-palam weight in theKandyMuseum weighs 8 lb. 1 ¾ oz. avoirdupois or 56,765.625 grains; the twentieth therefore is 70.957, and the seed 3.547 grains.
(4) A gold bowl in the Kandy Dalada Maligawa, presented in Saka 1713 (AD. 1791) by King Rdjddhirajasinha to secure merit for his queen, bears an inscription to the effect that it and its cover weighed 462 kalandas 9 mandetas. The bowl by itself weighs 23,547.125 grains ; the cover was said to be missing, but one used for another bowl, which, however, it did not fit, ,while of the exact size of the ,. bowl under discussion, weighs 7,049.5 grains, giving a total of 30,596,625 grains. The Madeta and kalanda should, therefore, weigh 3.308 and 66.160 grains. The bowl and cover, however, are . considerably worn, having been in use thrice daily. with few interruptions since the date of presentation.
5) The iraf of the stuiver piece of 1815, which weigh-ed 137 grains, is traditionally said to have been
(5) Half a Stiver piece of 1815, which weigh 137 grains, is traditionally said to have been used a kalanda weight, which accordingly is 68.5 grains. Three Dutch East India Company duits or challies ” were and are still reckoned as two kalanda. In 1791, 160 of these coins, presumably in mint condition, were equal to theAmsterdam pound, yielding Kalanda.of.71.4grains: with the worn specimens in actual use this approximates to the weight of the British half stuiver.
(6)In Jaffna the majandi is selected so that 16 go to the Pagoda of 53.3grains; one and a quarter pagodas are reckoned as equal to a kalanju, which thus is 66.6 grains, Among native physicians it is variously counted as 1/96 pound or 2/5 rupee ; accordingly its value is 72.9 or 72 grains.The weight of the Ceylon kalanju is thus remarkably uniform from the sixteenth century onwards, and, judging from the so called lankeswara coins (vide Chapter V), was the same before the Tamil invasion of the eleventh century. The kalanju, now sometimes known to the Sinhalese as the maduru kalanda is based on the heavier manjadi of 4-5 grains ; Valentyn mentions it about 1726 as equal to 20 “Mangeli,” and in Dutch reckoning 11 ½ (lege112 ½ ) greyn, or 3 ¾ enjelzen, the kalanju thus being 89 end the manjadi-.4.45 grains. The Kalanju is now generally relegated to the practice of medicine, the one Cent piece of 72 9 grains usually being employed; it has been superseded elsewhere by the pagoda and the rupee.
AMRAKOSA, c A.D. 700
|5 gunjas||1 mashaka|
|80 do.||16 do||1 suvarna, aksha or karsha|
|320 do||64 do||4 do.||1 Pala|
|32000 do||6400 do||400 do.||100 do||1 tula|
|640000 do||128000 do…||8000 do||2000 do||20 do||1 bhara|
|4 nenmani(grains of Paddy)or vlsatn||1 kupikuru|
|8 do||2 do||1 Mancadi|
|16 do.||4 do||2 do||1 Panattakukam|
|160 do||40 do||20 do.||10 do||1 kalancu|
|480 do||120 do||60 do||30 do||3 do||1 karshan|
|1929 do||.||100 do.||120 do||12 do||4 do||1 Palam|
|4 ratis||1 cina|
|40 do||10 do||1 Marha|
|320 do||80 do||8 do||I Pala|
Abhidanappadipika [ Appendix – C]
|4 viha (Paddy)||1 gunga|
|8 do||2 do||1 Masaka|
|20 do||5 do.||2 ½ do||1 Akkha|
|160 do||40 do||20 do||8 do||I dharana|
|800 do||200 do||100 do||40 do||5 do||1 suvanna|
|1,600 do||400 do||200 do||80 do||10 do||2 do||1 Pala|
|25 do||5 do||1 Nikkha|
|100 do.||I Tula|
|2,000 do||1 bhara|
Yoganava (Appendix C)
|8 Vi-ata (Paddy)||1 Madata|
|160 do||20 do||I kalanda|
|480 do||60 do.||3 do||1 huna|
|1920 do||240 do||12 do||4 do||I Palama|
|20 do||1 aka|
|160 do.||8 do||1 do|